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Journal archives for August 2016

August 03, 2016

Pleurotus in New Zealand

There are relatively few species of Pleurotus in New Zealand, although the genus is superficially similar to Hohenbuehelia, Scytinotis, Crepidotus and Conchomyces. The genus Pleurotus was last revised in New Zealand by Segedin (1995). However there are a number of issues with that revision which undermine the reliability.

P. purpureo-olivaceous has a dark brown polished caps, a rubbery texture and pale greyish gills. It can be mistaken for Hohenbuehelia species in the petalodes group and so the gills should always be checked, with a hand-lens and preferably microscope, for the absence of the large metuloid cystidia characteristic of Hohenbuehelia. Some darker forms of P. australis can look similar but are not rubbery and the gills are not grey. Phylogenetically P. purpureo-olivaceous is distinct from all other species of Pleurotus (unsurprisingly). The remaining NZ species are rather similar, with cap colours variable from cream to brown (but not dark brown and polished), and a stipe varying from absent to lateral and fruitbodies occurring singly to clustered on wood. They can only reliably be distinguished by micro-characters.

P. djamor is the name given to a cluster of phylogenetically related but distinct entities. Some of the cultivated shop versions in this group are yellow or pink. The indigenous version has caps that are brownish. The complex is represented in New Zealand by P. parsonsiae, and that name should be used in preference to P. djamor. Examination the type of P. parsonsiae held at Kew, confirms it sits with the P. djamor complex and should be recognised as an independent species. There is some doubt that Segedin in her 1995 re-description examined the correct specimen as her description differs considerably from the recent re-examination, which demonstrates the presence of skeletal hyphae. Members of the group always have some skeletal hyphae in the stipe and are consequently rather tough. By skeletal I mean hyphae with refractive thickened walls (and with or without clamps). Sometimes the term dimitic is used but perhaps not appropriately. The sequence data tell us that P. parsonsiae is identical to some collections from Kenya, whilst the Cook Islands have their own version of 'P. djamor'. The name P. opuntiae has been used incorrectly in NZ for P. parsonsiae. It should be noted that P. parsonsiae, P. australis and P. pulmonarius are all confirmed as occurring on Cabbage Tree (as well as other trees).

A recent paper (Zervakis et al, 2019) discussing the P. djamor complex is in error regarding comments on P. parsonisae. The type collection was not studied by the authors and they accepted erroneous subsequent re-descriptions by Segedin et al 1995.

Sequences of verified collections of P. australis from New Zealand are phylogenetically intermixed with collections from Australia and represent the same species in both countries. The cap can become quite dark brown and shiny but the fruitbody is not rubbery and gills not greyish like P. purpureoolivaceous. Some species of Pleurotus produce 'coremia' - a black slimy exudate on the growing caps which consists of asexual spores (conidia). This asexual stage has been referred to the genus Antromycopsis. Pleurotus australis is one of these species and is therefore placed in the subgenus Coremiapleurotus along with P. cystidiatus and P. fuscosquamulosus. In Segedin's 1985 paper the species is assigned to subgenus Pleurotus without coremia and that is clearly incorrect. In addition she places Pleurotus purpureo-olivaceus in subgenus Coremiapleurotus. On phylogenetic grounds that seems doubtful and I have not observed coremia in that species. In my opinion some collections of P. australis and P. purpureo-olivaceous were confused by Segedin, but unfortunately a number of collections mentioned in the paper seem to have been misplaced and cannot be re-examined. In fact it is possible that Stevenson's type collection of P. purpureo-olivaceus is in fact P. australis, which would make the name a later synonym of P. australis, and a new name would be needed for our large purplish species on beech. P. rattenburyi is almost certainly a synonym of P. australis and not P. purpureo-olivaceus. To resolve this confusion the type collections of all the relevent species housed at Kew require re-examination (for P. purpureo-olivaceous, P. rattenburyi and P. crawfordiae).

P. pulmonarius is yet another species complex with our version clustered with material from Asia. P. pulmonarius forms a distinct clade with P. ostreatus & P. eryngii.

P. velatus was described from New Zealand by Segedin et al as a species possessing a veil. However re-examination of the type indicates no visible veilar remnants. The cap is sparsely velutinate in younger frbs but not as a consequence of veilar remnants. The type is the only collection and more collections showing the purported characters are required to validate its recognition. It may just represent a form of P. pulmonarius or P. djamor.Such variants are known elsewhere.

The true Oyster MushroomP. ostreatus is not present in natural environments in New Zealand. It is present as an introduction in cultivation. An old collection from a supermarket was found to be this species, although without information on the original source. P. ostreatus was listed as an Unwanted Organism but that status has recently changed and the species can now be imported and grown.

 

1

Frb rubbery in texture. Cap dark brown to purplish brown, polished. Gills pale grey. Spores < 9 um long.

P. purpureoolivaceous

1’

Frb not rubbery in texture. Cap usually paler. Gills cream to yellow. Spores > 9um long.

2

2

Skeletal hyphae absent in all tissue Cap grey to brown (sometimes dark). Spores 11 x 4, Q=2.8 (often longer)

P. australis

2’

Cap paler – cream to tan/fawn. Spores 10um or smaller, Q < 2.7

3

3

Cap grey to tan/fawn. Always some skeletal hyphae in the stipe. Spores 10 x 4um, Q=2.5

P. parsonsiae (P. djamor NZ)

3’

Cap cream to tan/fawn. Skeletal hyphae absent or restricted to lamellae trama. Spores 10 x 4um, Q=2.5

P. pulmonarius

References:

Segedin, B.P.; Buchanan, P.K.; Wilkie, J.P. 1995: Studies in the Agaricales of New Zealand: new species, new records and renamed species of Pleurotus (Pleurotaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 8: 453-482

Zervakis G.I., Venturella G., Fryssouli V., Inglese P., Polemis E., Gargano M.L., 2019. Pleurotus opuntiae revisited – An insight to the phylogeny of dimitic Pleurotus species with emphasis on the P. djamor complex. Fungal Biology, 123(3): 188-199

Posted on August 03, 2016 23:24 by cooperj cooperj | 2 comments | Leave a comment

August 04, 2016

Genera and species within the Psathyrellaceae

The Psathyrellaceae form a well-defined family including the eponymous Psathyrella, the 'crumble caps', well named because of their fraglile caps, a consequence of the microscopic structure consisting of spherical cells (a hymeniderm) rather than hyphal strands that bind together. It includes most of the ink-cap species once placed in Coprinus. Phylogenetic data led to the restriction of Coprinus to C. comatus and allies. Coprinus now contains just a few species unrelated to most of the remaining ink-caps, and Coprinus is now placed in a different family, the Agaricaceae. The same data led to the recognition of a number of related genera within the psathyrellaceae: Coprinellus, Coprinopsis and Parasola. These are sometimes hard to distinguish and I provide a table of distinguishing features. Very few species can be determined correctly without microscopy. Psathyrella has a hymeniderm cap structure like Coprinellus and Parasola but in the latter two genera the hymeniderm structure is a single layer over a normal hyphal subdermis, whereas in Psathyrella there are multiple layers, adding to its relative fragility. The family also contains the relatively large and recogniseable 'Weeping Widows' Lacrymaria. In addition in NZ we have undescribed species in Homophron, and an undescribed genus not treated here.

Distinguishing characters for critical genera of Psathyrellaceae

Coprinellus

Coprinopsis

Parasola

Sometimes with trabecular cystidia (enlarged hymenial cystidia associated with auto-digestion) and a coprinoid hymenium (each basidium surrounded by 4 sterile pseudoparaphyses giving a regular lattice-like appearance) 

With trabecular cystidia and a coprinoid hymenium

Sometimes with trabecular cystidia and a coprinoid hymenium

Auto-digesting or not

Auto-digesting

Auto-digestion incomplete or lacking

Pileipellis hymeniform

Pileipellis a cutis

Pileipellis hymeniform

No veil or veil of globose cells

Always with veil (globose, hyphal, diverticulate)

No veilar structures

Caulocystidia often present

No caulocystidia(but stipe sometimes fibrillose)

No caulocystidia

Sometimes Ozonium state

No Ozonium state

No Ozonium state

Often pileocystidia

No pileocystidia

Sometimes pileocystidia

 

Coprinoid genera/section and diagnostic features

Genus/Section

Pilocystidia

Veil

Caulocystidia

Deliquescing

Cap structure

Notes

Coprinellus

Setulosi

Yes

Yes/No.

Like pilocystidia

Often not deliquescing

Hymeniform

Often pleated, like Parasola

Micacei

No

Globose cells with hyphal connectives. Pinkish in KOH

Yes (sometimes sparse when mature)

Deliquescing

Hymeniform

Domestici

No

Chains of fusiform to subglobose cells. Not pink in KOH. No clamps

Yes/No

Deliquescing

Hymeniform

Can resemble Lanatuli, but no clamps (e.g. C. lagopus versus C. flocculosus

Coprinopsis

Atramentarii

No

Evanescent/absent. Hyphal when present, sometimes diverticulate

None (stem with a ring-like line)

Deliquescing

Cuticular

Stem with a ring-like line

Lanatuli

No

Chains of unbranched elongate cells. With clamps.

None (but stem often hairy)

Deliquescing

Cuticular

Alachuani

No

Branched or diverticulate hyphal cells

None (but stem often floccose)

Deliquescing

Cuticular

Narcotici

No

Globose/subglobose with warts, not dissolving in acid

None (but stem often floccose)

Deliquescing

Cuticular

Strong smell and spores with sheath

Nivei

Globose/subglobose smooth or with crystalline encustation dissolving in acid

None (but stem floccose)

Deliquescing

Cuticular/hymeniform

No smell and spores without sheath

Parasola

Glabri  

No

None

None

Collapsing

Hymeniform

Cap pleated. See Setulosi

Auricomi

Yes

None

None

Collapsing

Hymeniform

Pilocystidia hair-like, thick-walled, golden.


Species within the genera

In each genus we have a mixture of native and exotic species, with some of the native species shared with Australia, Asia and South America and seemingly with relatively low diversity compared to many regions. Similar to many other groups we have a history of misapplied European names for indigenous species, for example species traditionally named Coprinellus micaceus and C. disseminatus  in New Zealand are not the same as the northern hemisphere originals. Both names represent species complexes with geographic variation across the world.

There will be more species present than are listed in each of these keys, even though the group as a whole is much less speciose here than in the northern hemisphere. Psathyrella in particular has been poorly documented in urban environments and many more introductions are likely to be found. The indigenous species are few, and poorly collected.  Animal dung (especially rabbit, deer, possum) if incubated on damp tissue paper in a container in a cool environment, will produce many small coprinoid species (Bell 1983). They are all likely to be introductions, given the absence of mammals in NZ until we came along. More work is required on the NZ members. Few of the documented species have vouchers, and even fewer have been confirmed through seqences.  Northern hemisphere concepts have been incorrectly applied, and many of our fungi have a regional origin (or are shared) and represent different species. For the northern hemisphere species there have been several relatively recent extensive treatments making delimitation much clearer, e.g. Richardson & Watling 1997, keys to Fungi on Dung, BMS; Doveri, 2004, Fungi Fimicoli Italici; Flora Agaricina Neerlandica vol6, 2005; Funga Nordica, ed2, 2012; and several online guides.

If you want to be sure a key has worked then compare both the micro and macro features with a full description of the species (if you can find one). These keys were for my own benefit, so I can rapidly filter out things I have seen before.

Psathyrella

The crumble caps. Also recorded is P. macquariensis which may correspond to one of the undescribed taxa in this key. It is worth noting the P. gracilis/corrugis/microrrhiza group still seems to need some work. Most authors now treat P. gracilis as a synonym of P. corrugis, but current sequence data for samples with these names indicate clear separation of P. corrugis from a mix of material labelled P. microrrhiza and P. gracilis. Correct identification and/or synonmy seems unclear.

1

In sand dunes

P. ammophilae

1’

In other habitats

2

2

On rotting wood in natural habitats, cap densely spiky, but spines eventually washing off (see also couplet 7 if not spiny)

P.echinata

2’

On bare soil or with litter/wood chips, and in modified or natural habitats

3

3

Tall, thin stemmed species, usually with wood chips, gill edge sometimes red, modified environments

4

3’

No so tall, in soil, often with wood, but not wood chips, modified or natural environments

6

4

Stem without pseudorrhiza (not strongly fibrillose at base), gill edge red or not

P. prona sensu lato

4’

Stem with pseudorrhiza (strongly fibrillose stem base), gill edge usually with red somewhere

5

5

Gill edge entirely red, when young with fibrillose veil

P. corrugis

5’

Gill edge patchily red, when young without veil

P. microrrhiza

6

Caps white/cream, growing clustered, on soil near wood, cap edge with appendiculate veil fragments. Two species in modified/natural environments

P. candolleana sensu lato

6’

Caps brown, without appendiculate veil, natural habitats. Gills tan coloured, especially when young. Poorly known species. Sometimes also on wood.

7

7

Cap less than 1.5cm broad. Not typically Psathyrella-like (more like Simocybe/Tubaria). Piluliformis group.

P. sp. ‘Butterfly Creek’

7’

Caps more than 2cm broad at maturity

8

8

Veilar patches persistent in cap centre to maturity. Candolleana group (PDD 87699, jac14022).

P. sp. 'Travis'

8

Veilar patches absent at maturity but maybe present when young

9

9

Veilar patches on cap edge when young. Cap distinctly reddish to reddish brown

P. bipellis

9’

Fibrillose veil over entire cap when young but bald when mature. Cap lacking reddish tones

10

10

Cheilocystidia globose. Cap sometimes rugulose. Fibrillosa/fusca group  (PDD 95977, PDD 96201 = JAC11804)

P. sp. 'Jolies Bush'

10’

Cheilos utriform. Pygmea/fusca group (PDD87317 = JA10227)

P. JAC10227

Lacrymaria

The weeping widows. Like large grey Psathyrella species, with black gills weeping droplets in humid weather, and with rough spores. Sequence data and morphology indicate L. hypertropicalis from South America is very closely related, or a later synonym of L. asperospora.

1

Modified habitats. Cap fibrillose but not shaggy or granulose

L. lacrymabunda

1’

Indigenous habitats. Cap shaggy and/or granulose

L. asperospora

Coprinellus

Sometimes auto-digesting. Stem often minutely hairy with caulocystidia (but not in C. flocculosus and C. micaceous aff.). One species associated with an orange-brown 'Ozonium' furry hyphal growth (C. radians aff.).

As mentioned elsewhere a number of our species are close, but not the same as northern hemisphere species, and they are listed in the key as '.aff'. The sequences show that C. micaceous aff. NZ forms a distinct clade of two different species similar to collections from Argentina and Hawaii but none are the true northern hemisphere species. The species complex includes C. truncorum and C. micaceous. The true version of the latter posesses caulocystidia, not present in NZ material. The absence of caulocystidia is shared with C. truncorum, a name used in Australia, but that has ellipsoid spores and NZ collections have distinctly mitriform spores. Morphologically NZ material is closest to C. saccharina, a rare northern hemisphere species, for which there are no current sequences. The name C. micaceous has been used a long time in NZ so shifting it to C. micaceous aff. seems for the best until the complex is known better. Similarly we have at least three different species that look like C. disseminatus but none of them fall within the clade containing the northern hemisphere version. Morphological differences between these species have yet to be worked out in detail. There are some differences in microscopic characters. At the moment all the NZ versions are called C. disseminatus aff.

1

On dung (rabbit, possum). Cap to 8mm. Cap with setules and globose cells. Autodigesting or not.

C. heptemerus

1’

On soil or wood

2

2

On soil. Cap purplish when young, to 2cm. No veilar remnants on cap. Slight autodigestion.

C. plagioporus

2’

Cap never purplish, on wood or soil

3

3

Caps consistently over 2cm broad, honey-brown.

4

3’

Caps consistently less than 1.5cm, grey or brown

6

4 Associated with rust-orange Ozonium furry mat on wood. Spores < 12um long C. radians aff.

4'

Not associated with an Ozonium state. Spores > 13um

5

5

On wood chips or straw. Cap honey coloured, with fragments of felty veil, of filamentous hyphae, some thick-walled and not pink in alkali. Autodigesting.

C. flocculosus aff.

5’

On wood, or soil near wood. Cap honey coloured, with flecks of veil with thin-walled globose cells, pinkish in alkali. Autodigesting.

C. micaceous aff.

6

Masses of grey fruitbodies, primordia white. Cap densely covered in flecks of veil of globose cells.  Not autodigesting. If not in masses see Coprinopsis coniophora

C. disseminatus aff.

6’

Cap brownish, distinctly pleated, not in masses. Veil of filamentous cells. Cheilocystidia globose. Autodigesting or not. A rare northern species collected in Auckland once

C. velatopruinatus

Coprinopsis

Always auto-digesting. Stem never with caulocystidia, but some floccose (e.g. C. lagopus).

The key below does not include a few species recently added, and does not distnguish taxa with species complexes. We have at least 3 versions of C. atramentaria. One is identical to European material and clearly an introduction, one forms a group so far known only from New Zealand in native habitats, and the third, also an introduction, is very close to the type of C. depressiceps, seemingly known from a single collection in the USA (ours does not have a depressed cap). Our version of C. lagopus comprises two taxa, neither of them the 'real' version. One of them is phylogenetically slightly different to the European version and differs microscopically in the absence of pleurocystidia and few cheilocystidia embedded in a band of sterile tissue at the gill edge which can be peeled off. The other is more robust and aligns with material labelled C. lagopides. Another look-alike species, C. ochraceolanata has also recently been confirmed. Coprinopsis cinerea and C. macrocephala have both been recorded, but specimens I’ve examined are Coprinellus flocculosus aff. However, collections resembling C. lagopus on straw/dung/compost require further examination and more material. C. laanii cf. and C. 'Totara Reserve' are similar and both have very fluffy young caps. Both species are undescribed.  C. pseudomarcesibilis is recently recorded (and looks looks like a Psathyrella). Also recently recorded is a species closely related (or perhaps the same) as C. picaceus, which is visually quite distinct. Among historically recorded dung fungi C. nivea is recently confirmed as present. Other small (under 10mm) fungi on dung have also been recorded (see comments in the introduction). C. patouillardii requires confirmation because existing vouchers were found to be C. cordispora. Material of C. filamentifer in the national collection was found to be C. stercorea, and there are no vouchers for C. poliomalla.

1

On dung. Cap < 15mm

2

1’

Not on dung

3

2

No smell. Spores heart shaped

C. cordispora

2’

Strong smell. Spores cylindrical

C. stercorea

3

Cap broader than 25mm at maturity

4

3’

Cap less than 20mm at maturity

6

4

Growing from wounds of living trees. Veil forming patchy yellowish scurfy fragments

C. mitrispora

4’

Growing on soil or wood chips or compost

5

5

On wood chips or compost.  Cap white/grey, with copious hairy/fibrillose veil

C. lagopus s.l.

5’

In soil on buried wood. Cap grey/brown, without veil.

C. atramentarius s.l.

6

With dune grasses. Cap to 15mm

C. ammophilae aff.

6’

Different habitats

7

7

Growing amongst mosses on on soil or wood. Cap pure white

C. laanii

7’

Not consistently with mosses AND cap not pure white.  

8

8

Young caps with profuse fluffy grey veil remnants, on wood.

9

8'

Veil remnants not profuse and fluffy, substrates various

10

9

Veil of globose cells

C. 'Totara Reserve'

9'

Veil of filamentous cells

C. laannii cf.

10

Associated with animal carcasses (presumably). Spores rough (unlike all other NZ Coprinopsis). Known through stimulaiton of fruiting in soil with added urea.

C. austrophlyctidospora

10'

Not associated with animal carcasses. Spores smooth.

11

11

On wood. Cap broader than tall when young. Grey, including primordia. C. disseminatus-like but not growing in sheets

C. coniophora cf.

11’

In soil (and primarily on wood elsewhere). Caps taller than broad, white with tan centre.

C. pseudofriesii

Parasola

Be wary of calling anything that looks parasol-like Parasola plicatilis, or even Parasola. That form occurs commonly throughout the psathyrellaceae, and P. plicatilis itself does not seem to be present in NZ. P. leicocephala aff. is a close look-alike of P. plicatilis. Genetically our version is different to European P. leicocephala. Along with the British I don't currently accept the synonymy of the US P. lactea with P. leiocephala. More sequence-based evidence is required.

In Parasola the frbs are sometimes auto-digesting, often partial. Stem never with caulocystidia.

In addition to the species listed here, which I have seen/sequenced, P. misera may also occur on dung, but without voucher material and P. hemerobia has also been reported but the name is of dubious status.

1

Cap with yellow hairs (lens/microscope)

2

1’

Cap without hairs

3

2

Cap opening to a pleated parasol shape

P. auricoma

2’

Cap remaining conical, not parasol-like

P. conopila

3

Spores > 13um long

P. hercules

3’

Spores <= 12um long

4

4

Spores smooth in outline, <= 8um wide

P. kuehneri

4'

Spores with an angled outline (smooth corners to angles), > 8um wide

P. leiocephala aff.

Sections for the coprinoid species

Genus/Section

Section

Coprinellus

C. disseminatus aff.

micacei

C. heptemerus

setulosi

C. plagioporus

setulosi

C. velatopruinatus

setulosi

C. micaceous aff.

micacei

C. flocculosus aff.

domestici

C. radians aff.

domestici

Coprinopsis

C. cordispora

nivei

C. coniophora cf.()

nivei

C. stercorea

narcotici

C. laanii

narcotici

C. mitrispora

lanatuli

C. ammophilae aff.

lanatuli

C. lagopus

lanatuli

C. atramentaria

atramentarii

C. austrophlyctidospora

Alachuani

C. pseudofriesii

Alachuani

Parasola

P. auricoma

auricomi

P. conopila

auricomi

P. hercules

glabri

P. kuehneri

glabri

P. leiocephala aff.

glabri

Posted on August 04, 2016 01:22 by cooperj cooperj | 1 comment | Leave a comment

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