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Journal archives for September 2016

September 23, 2016

Scleroderma in NZ

Scleroderma is ectomycorrhizal and the species appear to be rather host specific in New Zealand according to current sequence data. The host specificity makes their identification a little easier. In addition to the species treated in the key, a Scleroderma has been reported in New Zealand with conifers, but I have not examined collections and no molecular work has been done. It is likely to be an additional introduced species.

Beware of using the name S. citrinum which is a yellow species with broad-leaved trees in Europe and the Eastern USA. The name is commonly misapplied around the rest of the world.

The species with tea-tree and Eucalyptus pose a problem for naming. Cunningham did the previous work on NZ species (1920-1940's) and he adopted overseas names and didn't place any importance on the associated ectomycorrhizal host species. Consequently his treatment is confused.

First the Eucalyptus associated species - S. radicans was named in Australia (presumably with a mrytaceous/Eucalyptus host) by C.G. Lloyd in 1906, but Guzman, in his 1970 global monograph, considered it to be a synonym of S. albidum, a species named from a garden in North Africa in 1899 and the host tree not mentioned. The name S. albidum has now become generally accepted for common Eucalypt associated Scleroderma species around the world wherever the tree is planted. However, current phylogenetic data indicate there are several Eucalypt associated species to which the name S. albidum has been applied. It seems possible S. radicans provides the correct name for at least one of these species. I will use the name S. radicans for the Eucalypt associated species in NZ until proven incorrect. The NZ material is different to other currently sequenced material of Eucalypt-associated species.

Now the NZ tea-tree associated species - Most NZ collections with tea-tree got lumped under the name S. flavidum by Cunnningham. That was originally described from the USA, and is now considered to be a synonym of S. cepa. Neither species is present in NZ, synonyms or not. Records of S. cepa in New Zealand are always ageing specimens of one of the other species listed here.

We have a coarse scaly species associated with tea-tree in geothermal areas, and it was known by Cunningham, but does not have an existing name. Here I am calling it Scleroderma sp. 'geothermal' and it needs more collections and characterisation.

We have just one other species associated with tea-tree but there are three potential names to consider. Cunningham named S. flavidum forma macrospora for some material with tea-tree. The spores are actually quite variable in size so the name is misleading. I am using this as a stop-gap name for the tea-tree associated species in New Zealand. It is distinctive microscopically because the large spines are broad-based and confluent, giving a spiny/reticulate appearance to the spores, which is quite different to other NZ Scleroderma, including S. albidum/radicans with Eucalyptus. I will use this name for the NZ tea-tree associated species for the moment, but it is unsatisfactory and a new name is needed. Cunningham did not typify the name (being just a forma) and he introduced it for both Australian and New Zealand collections, presumably with a variety of hosts tree species, which he did not note. Sequences of NZ material indicate an NZ-only clade for this species, but with one sample from China. The clade is closely related to a group of species labelled S. albidum from Brazil associated with Eucalytpus (but is not the same as all Brazilian collections of S. albidum !) and also S. aurantium from Pakistan, also associated with Eucalyptus. S. aurantium is a name of uncertain application. It has been misapplied in Europe for S. citrinum and elsewhere for S. cepa. The original use is possibly the same as S. verrucosum. S. aurantium has been used in NZ for the Scleroderma associated with P. radiata but the use of that name is so confused it is best buried and the real identity of the yellow pine associate requires clarification.

There is one more name to consider for the NZ tea-trea species. C.G. Lloyd, working in the 1920's, was sent a Scleroderma by Helen Dalyrimple from Dunedin and Lloyd named it S. caespitosum. Cunningham was always rather frustrated and dismissive of Lloyd's contributions and considered it to be yet another synonym of his adopted US name S. flavidum. It is possible this provides an earlier name for our tea-tree species, but the original description, and the epithet suggests this is a synonym of the introduced S. bovista. The original material (in formalin) requires re-examination (and I have now tracked it down in the Lloyd herbarium at Beltsville).

So, to conclude, it would seem the myrtaceous associated Scleroderma species globally need some work. They can't all be S. albidum, and certainly older names, like S. radicans, need serious re-evaluation. In addition the NZ tea-tree associated species are not the same as Australian Eucalyptus associated species.

Finally, Scleroderma is a a popular species for inclusion in mycorrhizal additives to enhance tree growth in nurseries and plantations. Whilst that is marginally acceptable for exotic plantation trees, it is not acceptable in native tree nurseries. It is critically important to get the right fungal species for the particular native tree, otherwise we are deliberately introducing and spreading potentially invasive species. These fungi are much more host-specific than previously assumed (at least in this part of the world). Fungi need to be eco-sourced, just like native plants they grow with.

1 With Kunzea/Leptospermum 2
1' With introduced trees (Eucalyptus, Quercus, Salix, Populus) 3
2 Geothermal areas. Without a pseudostipe. Peridium bright yellow/orange, with coarse scales.  Spores <= 11um, spines not pronounced. S. sp. 'geothermal'
2' With pseudostipe. Peridium yellow, furfuraceous but not scaly. When old splitting radially and opening up like S. cepa. Spores 10-16(19) um. Spines with broad bases and confluent. S. flavidum f. macrospora auct NZ
3 Spores reticulate. Peridium relatively smooth. With northern hemisphere broadleaf trees. S. bovista
3' Spores spiny. Peridium scaly or smooth 4
4 With Eucalyptus. Peridium relatively smooth. With pseudostipe. Spines to 1 um. S. radicans auct.
4' With other broadleaf trees. Peridium scaly 5
5 Spores 8-13um (incl. spines), spines to 1.5 um. Pseudostipe well developed S. verrucosum
5' Spores 12-18um (incl. spines), spines 1.4 to 2.5um. Pseudostipe short S. areolatum

 

Posted on September 23, 2016 03:42 by cooperj cooperj | 0 comments | Leave a comment

September 05, 2016

Amanita in NZ

The family amanitacaea in NZ has species of Limacella, Zhuliangomyces and Amanita. Within Amanita a group of non-mycrorrhizal species has recently been segregated under the name Aspidella, now Saproamanita. However, there is on-going debate about the need to split Amanita and, if so, whether Saproamanita is applicable to the group or not. In the following trial key I am treating these all as Amanita sensu lato until the issue is resolved. The ectomycorrhizal Amanita species are less particular about host trees than say LactariusCortinarius or Russula. In that respect they are similar to our boletes. Consequently several species are known both with tea-tree and beech. The introduced Amanita muscaria has made the jump from introdued to indigenous hosts and continues to spread through the beech forest. Amanita phalloides and the recently found Amanita marmorata (with tea-tree and introduced Eucalyptus) are deadly poisonous. The former is responsible for the majority of mushroom poisoning fatalities worldwide, and that includes deaths in New Zealand. Amanita excelsa var. spissa is present so far only in urban Canterbury with introduced European trees. It has been treated both as this variety and as a good species. A recent treatment (https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-018-0405-9) presents sequence evidence to suggest the two should be treated as distinct and unrelated species. However other sequences also labelled Amanita spissa indicate it should be treated as a variety. If Genbank:MH486891 from France represents the true A. spissa then A. excelsa var. spissa sensu NZ is really A. excelsa. If HQ539743 from Germany is the true A. spissa then it should be treated as a variety of A. excelsa. Given current data I believe HQ539743 represents Amanita excelsa var. spissa. Morphological studies and epitypification of appropriate European material is required to resolve this ambiguity. All New Zealand species in the amanitaceae have been extensively sequenced and studied.

 

1

Not apparently ectomycorrhizal and appearing in lawns away from trees and under shrubs. Often tacky to the touch and often with strong odour. Basidia without basal clamps in NZ taxa. Spores amyloid. (see also A. mumura - also section Lepidella with basal clamps and under beech). 

Amanita section Lepidella 3

1’

Obviously mycorrhizal under native tea-tree or southern beech, or introduced conifers and broad-leaved. Spores amyloid or not.

2

2

Under exotic trees (pine, spruce, oak, poplar, beech, lime, birch). If with Eucalyptus see A. marmorata

5

2’

Under native tea-tree and southern beech

9

3

Cap acutely conical and felty. Fruitbody ochraceous brown and tacky.

Amanita galerumgandalfi ined.( = sp. 2)

3’

Cap not acutely conical

4

4

Cap fuscous, with woolly scales

Amanita inopinata

4’

Cap ochre to cinnamon brown, without woolly scales

Amanita manicata 
(= A. nauseosa SS NZ)

5

Cap bright red to orange, with patches of white veil remnants, sometimes washed off. Stem with ring. Gills pure white. Spores inamyloid.

Amanita muscaria

 

5’

Cap other colours.

6

6

Cap reddish brown. Gills and flesh spotted with flesh coloured to brown spots, especially when damaged. Under exotic broadleaved trees. Spores amyloid.

Amanita rubescens

 

6’

Cap greenish, yellow or grey to brown

7

7

Cap grey to brown. Under exotic broadleaf trees. Spores amyloid.

Amanita excelsa var spissa

7’

Cap greenish yellow or yellow

8

8

Cap butter yellow. Stem without ring. Under exotic conifers. Spores inamyloid.

Amanita junquillea var. exannulata

8’

Cap yellowish green. Stem with ring. Under exotic broadleaf trees. Spores amyloid.

Amanita phalloides

9

Stem with a ring or remnants of a partial veil. Spores amyloid or inamyloid

10

9’

Stem without a ring or remnants of a partial veil. Spores inamyloid

19

10 Cap grey, without veil remnants, finely fibrillose, stem with pronounced volva. Spores amyloid. Amanita marmorata
10' Cap grey or not. If grey then not fibrillose and with veilar remnants 11

11

Cap with veil remnants of pyramidal/pointed warts or cuboid crumbs. Spores amyloid.

12

11’

Cap with veil remnants of patches or flat scales. Spores inamyloid or amyloid.

15

12

Cap grey to buff. Veil of patches or cuboid crumbs.

N.B. there is an undescribed species with characters of A. karea but a reddish colouration like A. rubescens.

Amanita karea
 

12’

Cap without grey colours and with pyramidal/pointed warts

13

13

Ring forming a well-developed entire skirt. Bulb at stem base with distinct flat top, often tan/grey. Lower stem base smooth.

Amanita australis

13’

Ring fragmenting. Lower stem distinctly scaly.

14

14

Spores globose

Amanita pareparina

14'

Spores ellipsoid (rare species known only from the type locality near Wellington)

Amanita pumatona

15

Gill edge black. Ring remnants on stem black. Fruitbody decaying rapidly. Spores inamyloid.

Amanita nigrescens

15’

Gill edge not black, etc. Spores amyloid.

16

16

Cap dark grey to brown. Spores globose. With tea-tree and southern beech. Ring sometimes yellowish. Cap > 7cm inmature specimens.

Amanita nothofagi

16’

Cap usually paler. Spores subglobose to ellipsoid, Q > 1.1

17

17

Cap grey. Veil remnants patches or small and crumb-like. Cap < 7cm.

N.B. there is an undescribed species with characters of A. karea and a reddish colouration like A. rubescens. Some collections of A. karea are like A. nothofagi and can then be separated by spore shape and size of fruitbodies.

Amanita karea
 

17’

Cap cream to buff. Veil patches large and often washed off. 

18

18

Cap > 7cm in mature specimens. Not staining yellow or drying pink. Basidia without basal clamps.

Amanita sp. ‘Bealy Spur’

18'

Cap < 7cm in mature specimsn. Some collections staining yellow and drying pink. Basidia with basal clamps. (section Lepidella)

Amanita mumura

19

Cap perimeter strongly striate. Cap colour buff to dark brown.

20

19’

Cap perimeter hardly striate, or not striate. Cap colour yellow to buff.

Amanita taiepa

20

Stem with distinct basal bulb with flat top and grey band around upper surface. Cap surface often powdery with veil remnants.

Amanita nehuta

20’

Stem with a distinct snake-skin pattern. Cap surface without powdery veil remnants. 

21

21

Gill edge with well differentiated cystidia

Amanita drummondii aff.

21'

Gill edge a partially gelatinised band of hyphae, without cheilocystidia

Amanita pekeoides

Posted on September 05, 2016 05:17 by cooperj cooperj | 1 comment | Leave a comment

September 22, 2016

The Stropharia, Hypholoma, Pholiota, Leratiomyces, Clavogaster series in NZ

Below is a very draft key to the NZ species I know in this related group of genera. The key is based on macro-features only, which makes it easy to use, but will probably fail. Many of the species cannot be reliably identified on macro-features alone. There are quite a number of undescribed species in the group and in some cases the genera are not clear and new genera may be required. As a whole the group sits within the Strophariaceae, the boundaries of which (and overlap with Hymenogasteraceae) are not settled, in my opinion. In a broad sense there are similar looking species in Deconica, Psilocybe, Galerina, Agrocybe (sensu stricto), Flammula, Gymnopilus, Kuehneromyces and Protostropharia. Photographs of all the species below can be found on the NZFUNGI2 website.

Clavogaster is marginally supported by phylogenetic data as an independent genus, and C. virescens is most closely related to Stropharia hornemannii in current data. C. virescens is a bit similar to the grey and blue/green staining Psilocybe weraroa. Clavogaster 'Whakapapa' has been collected a few times and prefers woody debris and is only semi-secotioid with gills and a cap that opens partially. It has been referred to Nivatogastrium (Mushroom Observer), a secotioid North American snow-bank genus within Pholiota. The NZ species is not one of Egon Horak's New Zealand species of Nivatogastrium, none of which are related to Pholiota and require re-disposing.  Clavogaster 'Whakapapa' is also not a Pholiota in disguise. A number of the Clavogaster, Leratiomyces and 'Pholiota' species listed below show a brilliant fluorescence under ultra-violet light.

Pholiota multicingulata is quite variable in colour, often with an olivaceous hue and Hyphloma-like. The phylogeny indicates P. multicingulata var. hanmerensis falls within the same broad species group. P. multicingulata is known also from Australia and Asia. The Australian P. communis is probably a synonym of P. multicingulata. It was established at varietal rank and does not have priority.

Pholiota glutinosa is part of the species complex around P. aurivella/adiposa. Our species (and the Australian version) is phylogenetically different to European/North American material as adiposa/aurivella and is more closely related to (but still a different species from) collections from Asia.

Hypholoma fasciculare does not seem to occur in New Zealand. All specimens under this name examined so far are either H. australianum or H. subviride aff.

Hypholoma australianum in NZ is phylogenetically slightly different to the original from Australia, but not enough to warrant a different name. It is variable in appearance and historically incorrectly identified in New Zealand as various species, including H. fasciculare, H. frowardii and H. sublateritium. Red forms should be compared with Cortinarius rubrocastaneus. The NZ Hypholomas can be distinguished from the other genera treated here by their consistently dark brownish-purple spore print, which is paler brown in the other genera. The traditional character of bitter taste for Hypholoma is true for some some NZ species, and not for others. Non-related species similar to Hypholoma, like Pholiota chrysmoides , are also bitter.

Hypholoma subviride cf looks like a small H. fasciculare with a cap 2-3cm at most. It is not H. subviride, or H. marginata and appears to be an undescribed indigenous species. The Tasmanian Hypholoma fasciculare var. armeniaca appears to be distinct. Phylogenetically there is a species complex showing regional differentiation.

Protostropharia 'Te Wera' and P. 'Hanmer'  seem to be related to the northern hemisphere P. semiglobata, and in some analyses to Phaeonematoloma myosotis and also to the Australian 'Pholiota' fieldiana but may not belong to Protostropharia or Phaeonematoloma. Similar to Protostropharia they often have a slimy stem.  'Pholiota cerea'P. chrysmoides and  P. 'Borland' are closely related and represent an undescribed genus.  Pholiota pallidocaulis (= sp. 'Tahakopa') and P. 'Hinewai' are also closely related. 'P. cerea' is an unpublished name used by Horak for a yellow viscid-capped species on wood. Karl Soop named P. chrysmoides as a larger yellow terrestrial species. In a number of Karl's publications on Cortinarius he figures a species he called P. cerea which is P. 'Borland' of this treatment, and is not Egon Horak's species. Pholiota 'Hinewai' is related to the rare northern hemisphere P. henningsii found in similar habitats. Pholiota pallidocaulis described from Tasmania posesses yellow rhizoids.

Stropharia aeruginosa has been documented a few times in NZ but so far all collections have turned out to be the related S. caerulea (=S. cyanea auct) with a less pronounced ring and paler gills.

Stropharia 'Kennedy' is an undescribed species morphologically and phylogenetically close to S. jilinensis from China, which has a greyish purple cap rather than brown. It is similarly squamulose. It might be related to S. formosa from Tasmania.

P. brunnescens is presumably an introduction from North America. It is associated with fire sites and related to P. carbonaria . Our species in this fire-adapted groups are not Crassisporium/Pachylepyrium.

P. subflammans was originally described from Chile and is the name given to a very common and variable species in NZ. It is closely related to P. terrestris. Sequence data indicates P. subflammans is identical to P. nubicola from Venezuela (originally Pachylepyrium nubicola) and P. squarrosipes from Australia. P. oblita from Argentina seems to be yet another synonym. If these are all synonyms then P. subflammans is the correct name. The similar northern hemisphere P. squarrosoides is a different. The introduced Pholiota gummosa is similar but the NZ taxon has a cap that becomes rapidly dry and without copious veil remnants..

1

On wood or with wood chips

2

1’

On soil, sometimes with wood chips or buried wood, or with mosses

9

2

Cap tan to dark olive or dark brown

3

2’

Cap with reddish, orange, yellow colours

4

3

Cap with white flecks, sometimes lost at maturity

Hypholoma brunneum

3’

Cap without flecks, sometimes on wood chips, smaller tha H. brunneum. See also Galerina patagonica/marginata

Pholiota multicingulata

4

Cap semi-secotioid, yellowish brown, on well-rotted wood

Clavogaster ‘Whakapapa

4’

Cap opening normally. Cap colour yellowish to range reddish

5

5

Cap slimy, golden colour, with brown scales. Often growing from cut logs. 

Pholiota glutinosa

5’

Cap without golden slime

6

6

Relatively large species, reminiscent of Hypholoma fasciculare but with a shaggy stem base. Gills with greenish tinge. Cap variable and can be yellow, orange, red. If on soil and cap lemon yellow see Pholiota chrysmoides

Hypholoma australianum

6’

Smaller species, stem not shaggy, gills with greenish tinge or not

7

7

Gills without a greenish tinge and mild tasting, with yellow rhizoids at stem base

Pholiota  pallidocaulis

7’

Gills usually with a greenish yellow tinge and always bitter tasting

8

8

Cap always with central pimple

Hypholoma acutum

8’

Cap becoming flat, without pimple, looking like a small H. fasciculare. This is not H. subviride sensu stricto and is an undescribed local species. H. fasciculare sensu stricto does not seem to occur in NZ.

Hypholoma subviride cf.

9

Frutibody secotioid, blue or red. See also Clavogaster ‘Whakapapa’ and NZ Nivatogastrium species

10

9’

Fruitbody not secotioid

11

10

Fruitbody powder blue. If greyish blue see Psilocybe weraroa

Clavogaster virescens

10’

Fruitbody scarlet red. If no stalk see also Paurocotylis pila.

Leratiomyces erythrocephala

11

Cap with purple, red, or blue/green colours

12

11’

Cap with other colours, less striking

14

12

Large species with purple/brown cap and ring (pale colour variants are known)

Stropharia rugosoannulata

12’

Smaller. Cap bright red or with blue/green colours

13

13

Cap red. Very common on wood chips

Leratiomyces ceres

13’

Cap with blue/green colours. Modifed habitats. 

Stropharia caerulea

14

Fruitbody arising from a hard buried tuber

Hypholoma tuberosa

14'

Not arising from a tuber

15

15

Cap brown. Associated with bonfire sites and burnt ground

Pholiota brunnescens

15’

Not associated with bonfire sites

16

16

Stem with well defined ring, sometimes evanescent (but not just a ring zone)

17

16’

Stem without a well defined ring, but sometimes with ring zone

19

17

Cap smooth

18

17'

Cap scurfy, stipe base with rhizoids, unmodified habitats

Stropharia ‘Kennedy’

18

Slender species with tacky caps and stem, ring evanescent, in native habitats

Protostropharia'Hanmer'

18'

Realtively stocky, caps and stem not slimy, ring persistent, in lawns/parks

Stropharia coronilla

19

Growth densely fasciculate. Stem shaggy and cap fibrillose or with veil fragments.

20

19’

Growth not fasciculate, without veil remnants on cap

21

20

Cap tan coloured, viscid in wet weather, with veil fragments that rub off. Occurring in both native and modified habitats

Pholiota subflammans

20’

Cap eventually dirty olive yellow and surface drying fibrillose/squamulose but without veil fragments even when small. Often associated with buried wood. Probably introduced into NZ in modified habitats.

Pholiota gummosa

21

Cap dry, lemon yellow, but ageing tan. Hypholoma fasciculare-like

Pholiota chrysmoides

21’

Cap sticky when fresh, not looking like Hypholoma fasciculare. All the following species are placed in Pholiota for convenience. 

22

22

Small, always with mosses in damp, open habitats. Reminiscent of some Galerina.

Pholiota ‘Hinewai’

22’

In forests and scrub

23

23

Cap brown, stem thin (< 3mm), stem base with pinkish violet mycelium

Protostropharia ‘Te Wera’

23’

Stem thicker (> 4mm)

24

24

Cap yellow. Stem with rhizoids.

Pholiota cerea ined.

24’

Cap brown. Stipe without rhizoids. Yellow colours present or not. This is P. cerea sensu Soop, non sensu Horak

Pholiota ‘Borland’

Posted on September 22, 2016 03:44 by cooperj cooperj | 0 comments | Leave a comment

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