January 24, 2023

Ardeidae Hybrids

The full hybrid index was compiled mostly using Bird Hybrids, eBird, and Avian Hybrids. Taxa that have been said to exist but that I wasn't able to find photos or information on are listed in the index but have no section dedicated to them yet. Contributions for these taxa especially are extremely helpful, but information on nearly all hybrids is lacking so any information or media is important. If you notice any errors or have something to contribute please leave a comment or send me a message.

Compiling a list of all known hybrids with examples is difficult for several reasons. Obviously I'm not able to obtain permission to embed all media of these hybrids on a single web page/journal post. This means I'm relying on countless other sites to continue to host said media for the foreseeable future. This will inevitably lead to broken links and lost media. Uploading to sites like iNat and eBird can hopefully prevent this.


Large Bitterns (Botaurus)

Pinnated Bittern (Botaurus pinnatus)
American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus)
Great Bittern (Botaurus stellaris)
Australasian Bittern (Botaurus poiciloptilus)

Zigzag Heron (Zebrilus)

Zigzag Heron (Zebrilus undulatus)

Small Bitterns (Ixobrychus)

Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis)
Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus)
Black-backed Bittern (Ixobrychus dubius)
Schrenck’s Bittern (Ixobrychus eurhythmus)
Cinnamon Bittern (Ixobrychus cinnamomeus)
Dwarf Bittern (Ixobrychus sturmii)
Black Bittern (Ixobrychus flavicollis)
Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis)
Stripe-backed Bittern (Ixobrychus involucris)

Neotropical Tiger-Herons (Tigrisoma)

Rufescent Tiger-Heron (Tigrisoma lineatum)
Fasciated Tiger-Heron (Tigrisoma fasciatum)
Bare-throated Tiger-Heron (Tigrisoma mexicanum)

Forest Bittern (Zonerodius)

Forest Bittern (Zonerodius heliosylus)

African Tiger-Herons (Tigriornis)

White-crested Bittern (Tigriornis leucolopha)

Great Herons (Ardea)

Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)

Great Blue x Great White Heron

Great Blue x Cocoi Heron

Great Blue Heron x Great Egret

Great White Heron (Ardea (herodias) occidentalis)

Great White x Great Blue Heron

Gray Heron (Ardea cinerea)

Gray Heron x Great Egret

Gray x Black-headed Heron

Gray x Humblot’s Heron

Gray x Purple Heron

Gray Heron x Little Egret

Cocoi Heron (Ardea cocoi)

Cocoi x Great Blue Heron

Pacific Heron (Ardea pacifica)
Black-headed Heron (Ardea melanocephala)

Black-headed x Gray Heron

Black-headed Heron x Great Egret

Humblot’s Heron (Ardea humbloti)

Humblot’s x Gray Heron

White-bellied Heron (Ardea insignis)
Great-billed Heron (Ardea sumatrana)
Goliath Heron (Ardea goliath)
Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea)

Purple x Gray Heron

Great Egret (Ardea alba)

Great Egret x Great Blue Heron

Great Egret x Gray Heron

Great Egret x Black-headed Heron

Intermediate Egret (Ardea intermedia)

Typical Egrets (Egretta)

White-faced Heron (Egretta novaehollandiae)
Chinese Egret (Egretta eulophotes)
Little Egret (Egretta garzetta)

Little Egret x Gray Heron

Little x Snowy Egret

Little Egret x Western Reef-Heron

Little Egret x Chinese Pond-Heron

Western Reef-Heron (Egretta gularis)

Western Reef-Heron x Little Egret

Pacific Reef-Heron (Egretta sacra)
Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)

Snowy x Little Egret

Snowy Egret x Little Blue Heron

Snowy Egret x Tricolored Heron

Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea)

Little Blue Heron x Snowy Egret

Little Blue x Tricolored Heron

Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor)

Tricolored Heron x Snowy Egret

Tricolored x Little Blue Heron

Tricolored Heron x Reddish Egret

Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens)

Reddish Egret x Tricolored Heron

Pied Heron (Egretta picata)
Slaty Egret (Egretta vinaceigula)
Black Heron (Egretta ardesiaca)

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus)

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)

Cattle Egret x Squacco Heron

Cattle Egret x Black-crowned Night-Heron

Pond-Herons (Ardeola)

Squacco Heron (Ardeola ralloides)

Squacco Heron x Cattle Egret

Squacco Heron x Black-crowned Night-Heron

Indian Pond-Heron (Ardeola grayii)

Indian x Javan Pond-Heron

Chinese Pond-Heron (Ardeola bacchus)

Chinese Pond-Heron x Little Egret

Javan Pond-Heron (Ardeola speciosa)

Javan x Indian Pond-Heron

Malagasy Pond-Heron (Ardeola idea)
Rufous-bellied Heron (Ardeola rufiventris)

Green-backed Herons (Butorides)

Green Heron (Butorides virescens)

Green x Striated Heron

Striated Heron (Butorides striata)

Striated x Green Heron

Agami Heron (Agamia)

Agami Heron (Agamia agami)

Whistling Heron (Syrigma)

Whistling Heron (Syrigma sibilatrix)

Capped Heron (Pilherodius)

Capped Heron (Pilherodius pileatus)

Nycticorax Night-Herons (Nycticorax)

Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)

Black-crowned Night-Heron x Cattle Egret

Black-crowned Night-Heron x Squacco Heron

Black-crowned x Nankeen Night-Heron

Black-crowned x Yellow-crowned Night-Heron

Nankeen Night-Heron (Nycticorax caledonicus)

Nankeen x Black-crowned Night-Heron

Nyctanassa Night-Herons (Nyctanassa)

Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Nyctanassa violacea)

Yellow-crowned x Black-crowned Night-Heron

Asian and African Night-Herons (Gorsachius)

White-backed Night-Heron (Gorsachius leuconotus)
White-eared Night-Heron (Gorsachius magnificus)
Japanese Night-Heron (Gorsachius goisagi)
Malayan Night-Heron (Gorsachius melanolophus)

Boat-billed Heron (Cochlearius)

Boat-billed Heron (Cochlearius cochlearius)

Hybrid Accounts:

Great Blue x Great White Heron (Ardea herodias x (herodias) occidentalis)

Other names: Würdemann's Heron, Wurdemann's Heron

Great Blue x Cocoi Heron (Ardea herodias x cocoi)


Great Blue Heron x Great Egret (Ardea herodias x alba)

Bird Hybrids

Gray Heron x Great Egret (Ardea cinerea x alba)

Paper with photos
Photos and info

Gray x Purple Heron (Ardea cinerea x purpurea)

Photo and info

Little x Snowy Egret (Egretta garzetta x thula)

Bird Hybrids

Little Egret x Western Reef-Heron (Egretta garzetta x gularis)

Bird Hybrids
Research Paper

Little Egret x Chinese Pond-Heron (Egretta garzetta x Ardeola bacchus)

Research Paper

Snowy Egret x Little Blue Heron (Egretta thula x caerulea)


Snowy Egret x Tricolored Heron (Egretta thula x tricolor)


Little Blue x Tricolored Heron (Egretta caerulea x tricolor)

Bird Hybrids

Tricolored Heron x Reddish Egret (Egretta tricolor x rufescens)

Photos (Note: in these photos it appears that the bird is doing the classic wing-flicking and open-wing foraging behavior that Reddish Egrets do.)

Cattle Egret x Squacco Heron (Bubulcus ibis x Ardeola ralloides)

Research Paper

Squacco Heron x Black-crowned Night-Heron (Ardeola ralloides x Nycticorax nycticorax)

Photo (http://birding.hu/megfigyeles/adatlap/789881, https://twitter.com/JacanaJones/status/1514529117559037953)

Indian x Javan Pond-Heron (Ardeola grayii x speciosa)

Photo (http://bangkokcitybirding.blogspot.com/2014/02/pond-herons.html?m=1)

Green x Striated Heron (Butorides virescens x striata)


Black-crowned x Nankeen Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax x caledonicus)


Black-crowned x Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax x Nyctanassa violacea)


Cattle Egret x Black-crowned Night-Heron (Bubulcus ibis x Nycticorax nycticorax)

All I can find is this photo (you may need a bird forum account to view it) from this discussion regarding its ID. All other links to images in that thread appear to be unfortunately broken.

Gray x Black-headed Heron (Ardea cinerea x melanocephala)

Photo (http://www.zestforbirds.co.za/)

Gray Heron x Little Egret (Ardea cinerea x Egretta garzetta)

Photo (probable) (info here. Note: the first photo may not be identified correctly.)
Posted on January 24, 2023 01:11 AM by liliumtbn liliumtbn | 0 comments | Leave a comment

January 20, 2023

Anatidae Hybrids

The full hybrid index was compiled mostly using Bird Hybrids, eBird, and Avian Hybrids. Some hybrids listed by these sources don’t have photos or information online that I was able to track down, which is why many of these taxa don’t have individual sections in the guide dedicated to them. For these taxa without evidence, it's unclear if many of them ever existed or are even possible. Contributions for these taxa especially are extremely helpful, but information on nearly all hybrids is lacking so any information or media is important. If you notice any errors or have something to contribute please leave a comment or send me a message.

Compiling a list of all known hybrids with examples is difficult for several reasons. Obviously I'm not able to obtain permission to embed all media of these hybrids on a single web page/journal post. This means I'm relying on countless other sites to continue to host said media for the foreseeable future. This will inevitably lead to broken links and lost media. Uploading to sites like iNat and eBird can hopefully prevent this.

✅- Certainly or nearly certainly is produced in the wild
⏺- Likely can be produced in the wild
(Note: I'm not extremely familiar with the introduced populations of waterfowl in a lot of places, especially Europe, so take these icons with a grain of salt.)


Whistling-Ducks (Dendrocygna)

Spotted Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna guttata)

Spotted x White-faced Whistling-Duck

Plumed Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna eytoni)

Plumed x White-faced Whistling-Duck

Plumed x West Indian Whistling-Duck

Plumed x Wandering Whistling-Duck

Plumed x Black-bellied Whistling-Duck

Plumed x Fulvous Whistling-Duck

White-faced Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna viduata)

White-faced x Plumed Whistling-Duck

White-faced x Spotted Whistling-Duck

White-faced x Black-bellied Whistling-Duck

White-faced x West Indian Whistling-Duck

White-faced x Fulvous Whistling-Duck

White-faced Whistling-Duck x Rosy-billed Pochard

Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis)

Black-bellied x West Indian Whistling-Duck

Black-bellied x Fulvous Whistling-Duck

Black-bellied x Plumed Whistling-Duck

Black-bellied x White-faced Whistling-Duck

West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arborea)

West Indian x White-faced Whistling Duck

West Indian x Black-bellied Whistling-Duck

West Indian x Fulvous Whistling-Duck

West Indian x Plumed Whistling-Duck

Fulvous Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna bicolor)

Fulvous x White-faced Whistling-Duck

Fulvous x Black-bellied Whistling-Duck

Fulvous x West Indian Whistling-Duck

Fulvous x Wandering Whistling-Duck

Fulvous x Plumed Whistling-Duck

Fulvous x Lesser Whistling-Duck

Wandering Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arcuata)

Wandering x Lesser Whistling-Duck

Wandering x Fulvous Whistling-Duck

Wandering x Plumed Whistling-Duck

Lesser Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna javanica)

Lesser x Wandering Whistling-Duck

Lesser x Fulvous Whistling-Duck

White-backed Duck (Thalassornis)

White-backed Duck (Thalassornis leuconotus)

Gray Geese (Anser)

Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus)

Bar-headed x Swan Goose

Bar-headed x Greater White-fronted Goose

Bar-headed x Lesser White-fronted Goose

Bar-headed x Graylag Goose

Bar-headed x Snow Goose

Bar-headed x Emperor Goose

Bar-headed Goose x Brant

Bar-headed x Canada Goose

Bar-headed x Barnacle Goose

Bar-headed Goose x Common Shelduck

Bar-headed Goose x Australian Shelduck

Bar-headed Goose x Paradise Shelduck

Emperor Goose (Anser canagicus)

Emperor x Greater White-fronted Goose

Emperor x Lesser White-fronted Goose

Emperor x Graylag Goose

Emperor x Pink-footed Goose

Emperor x Snow Goose

Emperor x Swan Goose

Emperor x Bar-headed Goose

Emperor x Ross’s Goose

Emperor Goose x Brant

Emperor x Cackling Goose

Emperor x Barnacle Goose

Emperor x Upland Goose

Snow Goose (Anser caerulescens)

Snow x Bar-headed Goose

Snow x Emperor Goose

Snow x Ross’s Goose

Snow x Graylag Goose

Snow x Swan Goose

Snow x Pink-footed Goose

Snow x Greater White-fronted Goose

Snow x Lesser White-fronted Goose

Snow Goose x bean-goose sp.

Snow Goose x Brant

Snow x Canada Goose

Snow x Cackling Goose

Snow x Barnacle Goose

Snow Goose x Mute Swan

Snow x Egyptian Goose

Snow Goose x Muscovy Duck

Ross's Goose (Anser rossii)

Ross’s x Emperor Goose

Ross’s x Snow Goose

Ross’s x Graylag Goose

Ross’s x Pink-footed Goose

Ross’s x Greater White-fronted Goose

Ross’s x Lesser White-fronted Goose

Ross’s x Canada Goose

Ross’s x Cackling Goose

Ross’s x Barnacle Goose

Ross’s x Red-breasted Goose

Ross’s x Blue-winged Goose

Graylag Goose (Anser anser)

Graylag x Bar-headed Goose

Graylag x Emperor Goose

Graylag x Swan Goose

Graylag x Snow Goose

Graylag x Ross’s Goose

Graylag x Greater White-fronted Goose

Graylag x Lesser White-fronted Goose

Graylag x Pink-footed Goose

Graylag Goose x bean-goose sp.

Graylag Goose x Brant

Graylag x Canada Goose

Graylag x Cackling Goose

Graylag x Barnacle Goose

Graylag Goose x Mute Swan

Graylag Goose x Black Swan

Graylag Goose x Tundra Swan

Graylag Goose x Whooper Swan

Graylag x Egyptian Goose

Graylag Goose x Muscovy Duck

Graylag Goose x Common Shelduck

Graylag Goose x Mallard

Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides)

Swan x Bar-headed Goose

Swan x Snow Goose

Swan x Emperor Goose

Swan x Graylag Goose

Swan x Greater White-fronted Goose

Swan Goose x bean-goose sp.

Swan Goose x Brant

Swan x Canada Goose

Swan x Barnacle Goose

Swan Goose x Nēnē

Swan Goose x Mute Swan

Swan x Egyptian Goose

Swan x Spur-winged Goose

Swan Goose x Common Shelduck

Swan Goose x Muscovy Duck

Swan Goose x Mallard

Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons)

Greater White-fronted x Bar-headed Goose

Greater White-fronted x Emperor Goose

Greater White-fronted x Snow Goose

Greater White-fronted x Ross’s Goose

Greater White-fronted x Graylag Goose

Greater White-fronted x Swan Goose

Greater White-fronted x Lesser White-fronted Goose

Greater White-fronted x Pink-footed Goose

Greater White-fronted Goose x Tundra Bean-Goose

Greater White-fronted Goose x Brant

Greater White-fronted x Canada Goose

Greater White-fronted x Cackling Goose

Greater White-fronted x Barnacle Goose

Greater White-fronted x Red-breasted Goose

Greater White-fronted x Ashy-headed Goose

Greater White-fronted x Egyptian Goose

Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus)

Lesser White-fronted x Bar-headed Goose

Lesser White-fronted x Emperor Goose

Lesser White-fronted x Snow Goose

Lesser White-fronted x Ross’s Goose

Lesser White-fronted x Graylag Goose

Lesser White-fronted x Greater White-fronted Goose

Lesser White-fronted Goose x Brant

Lesser White-fronted x Barnacle Goose

Lesser White-fronted x Cackling Goose

Lesser White-fronted x Canada Goose

Lesser White-fronted x Red-breasted Goose

Taiga Bean-Goose (Anser fabalis)
Tundra Bean-Goose (Anser serrirostris)

Tundra Bean-Goose x Greater White-fronted Goose

Tundra Bean-Goose x Pink-footed Goose

Tundra Bean-Goose x Barnacle Goose

Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus)

Pink-footed x Greater White-fronted Goose

Pink-footed x Graylag Goose

Pink-footed x Snow Goose

Pink-footed x Ross’s Goose

Pink-footed x Emperor Goose

Pink-footed Goose x Tundra Bean-Goose

Pink-footed x Barnacle Goose

Pink-footed x Cackling Goose

Pink-footed x Canada Goose

Black Geese (Branta)

Brant (Branta bernicla)

Brant x Bar-headed Goose

Brant x Emperor Goose

Brant x Snow Goose

Brant x Graylag Goose

Brant x Swan Goose

Brant x Greater White-fronted Goose

Brant x Lesser White-fronted Goose

Brant x Canada Goose

Brant x Cackling Goose

Brant x Barnacle Goose

Brant x Red-breasted Goose

Brant x Mute Swan

Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis)

Barnacle x Bar-headed Goose

Barnacle x Emperor Goose

Barnacle x Snow Goose

Barnacle x Ross’s Goose

Barnacle x Graylag Goose

Barnacle x Swan Goose

Barnacle x Greater White-fronted Goose

Barnacle x Lesser White-fronted Goose

Barnacle x Tundra Bean-Goose

Barnacle x Pink-footed Goose

Barnacle Goose x Brant

Barnacle x Cackling Goose

Barnacle x Canada Goose

Barnacle Goose x Nēnē

Barnacle x Red-breasted Goose

Barnacle x Egyptian Goose

Barnacle Goose x Ruddy Shelduck

Barnacle x Upland Goose

Barnacle x Ashy-headed Goose

Barnacle Goose x Mallard

Cackling Goose (Branta hutchinsii)

Cackling x Emperor Goose

Cackling x Snow Goose

Cackling x Ross’s Goose

Cackling x Graylag Goose

Cackling x Greater White-fronted Goose

Cackling x Lesser White-fronted Goose

Cackling x Pink-footed Goose

Cackling Goose x Brant

Cackling x Barnacle Goose

Cackling x Canada Goose

Cackling x Red-breasted Goose

Cackling Goose x Mallard

Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)

Canada x Bar-headed Goose

Canada x Snow Goose

Canada x Ross’s Goose

Canada x Graylag Goose

Canada x Swan Goose

Canada x Greater White-fronted Goose

Canada x Lesser White-fronted Goose

Canada Goose x bean-goose sp.

Canada x Pink-footed Goose

Canada Goose x Brant

Canada x Barnacle Goose

Canada x Cackling Goose

Canada Goose x Nēnē

Canada x Red-breasted Goose

Canada Goose x Black Swan

Canada Goose x Trumpeter Swan

Canada Goose x Tundra Swan

Canada Goose x Whooper Swan

Canada Goose x Mute Swan

Canada Goose x Muscovy Duck

Nēnē (Branta sandvicensis)

Nēnē x Barnacle Goose

Nēnē x Swan Goose

Nēnē x Canada Goose

Nēnē x Cape Barren Goose

Nēnē x Coscoroba Swan

Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis)

Red-breasted x Ross’s Goose

Red-breasted x Greater White-fronted Goose

Red-breasted x Lesser White-fronted Goose

Red-breasted Goose x Brant

Red-breasted x Barnacle Goose

Red-breasted x Cackling Goose

Red-breasted x Canada Goose

Cape Barren Goose (Cereopsis)

Cape Barren Goose (Cereopsis novaehollandiae)

Cape Barren Goose x Nēnē

Freckled Duck (Stictonetta)

Freckled Duck (Stictonetta naevosa)

Blue-winged Goose (Cyanochen)

Blue-winged Goose (Cyanochen cyanoptera)

Blue-winged x Ross’s Goose

Blue-winged x Orinoco Goose

Blue-winged x Egyptian Goose

Blue-winged Goose x Ruddy Shelduck

True Swans (Cygnus)

Mute Swan (Cygnus olor)

Mute Swan x Snow Goose

Mute Swan x Graylag Goose

Mute Swan x Swan Goose

Mute Swan x Brant

Mute Swan x Canada Goose

Mute x Black Swan

Mute x Tundra Swan

Mute x Trumpeter Swan

Mute x Whooper Swan

Mute x Black-necked Swan

Black Swan (Cygnus atratus)

Black Swan x Graylag Goose

Black Swan x Canada Goose

Black x Mute Swan

Black x Tundra Swan

Black x Whooper Swan

Black-necked Swan (Cygnus melancoryphus)

Black-necked x Mute Swan

Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator)

Trumpeter Swan x Canada Goose

Trumpeter x Mute Swan

Trumpeter x Tundra Swan

Trumpeter x Whooper Swan

Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus)

Tundra Swan x Graylag Goose

Tundra Swan x Canada Goose

Tundra x Mute Swan

Tundra x Black Swan

Tundra x Trumpeter Swan

Tundra x Whooper Swan

Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus)

Whooper Swan x Graylag Goose

Whooper Swan x Canada Goose

Whooper x Mute Swan

Whooper x Black Swan

Whooper x Trumpeter Swan

Whooper x Tundra Swan

Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba)

Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba)

Coscoroba Swan x Nēnē

Comb Ducks (Sarkidiornis)

Knob-billed Duck (Sarkidiornis melanotos)

Knob-billed x Muscovy Duck

Knob-billed Duck x Mallard

Comb Duck (Sarkidiornis sylvicola)

Comb Duck x Rosy-billed Pochard

Hartlaub’s Duck (Pteronetta)

Hartlaub’s Duck (Pteronetta hartlaubii)

Orinoco and Andean Geese (Oressochen)

Orinoco Goose (Oressochen jubatus)

Orinoco x Blue-winged Goose

Orinoco x Egyptian Goose

Orinoco Goose x Ruddy Shelduck

Orinoco Goose x Common Shelduck

Andean Goose (Oressochen melanopterus)

Andean x Upland Goose

Andean x Ruddy-headed Goose

Andean x Egyptian Goose

Andean Goose x South African Shelduck

Austral Sheldgeese (Chloephaga)

Upland Goose (Chloephaga picta)

Upland x Emperor Goose

Upland x Barnacle Goose

Upland x Andean Goose

Upland x Ruddy-headed Goose

Upland x Egyptian Goose

Upland Goose x South African Shelduck

Upland Goose x Paradise Shelduck

Upland x Spur-winged Goose

Upland Goose x Maned Duck

Kelp Goose (Chloephaga hybrida)
Ashy-headed Goose (Chloephaga poliocephala)

Ashy-headed x Greater White-fronted Goose

Ashy-headed x Barnacle Goose

Ashy-headed x Ruddy-headed Goose

Ashy-headed Goose x Australian Shelduck

Ruddy-headed Goose (Chloephaga rubidiceps)

Ruddy-headed x Andean Goose

Ruddy-headed x Upland Goose

Ruddy-headed x Ashy-headed Goose

Radjah Shelduck (Radjah)

Radjah Shelduck (Radjah radjah)

Radjah x Ruddy Shelduck

Radjah x Common Shelduck

Egyptian Goose (Alopochen)

Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiaca)

Egyptian x Snow Goose

Egyptian x Graylag Goose

Egyptian x Swan Goose

Egyptian x Greater White-fronted Goose

Egyptian x Barnacle Goose

Egyptian x Blue-winged Goose

Egyptian x Orinoco Goose

Egyptian x Andean Goose

Egyptian x Upland Goose

Egyptian Goose x Ruddy Shelduck

Egyptian Goose x South African Shelduck

Egyptian Goose x Australian Shelduck

Egyptian Goose x Common Shelduck

Egyptian x Spur-winged Goose

Egyptian Goose x Muscovy Duck

Egyptian Goose x Maned Duck

Egyptian Goose x Mallard

Typical Shelducks (Tadorna)

Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea)

Ruddy Shelduck x Barnacle Goose

Ruddy Shelduck x Blue-winged Goose

Ruddy Shelduck x Orinoco Goose

Ruddy x Radjah Shelduck

Ruddy Shelduck x Egyptian Goose

Ruddy x South African Shelduck

Ruddy x Australian Shelduck

Ruddy x Common Shelduck

Ruddy x Paradise Shelduck

Ruddy Shelduck x Spur-winged Goose

Ruddy Shelduck x Wood Duck

Ruddy Shelduck x Mallard

Ruddy Shelduck x Falcated Duck

Ruddy Shelduck x Rosy-billed Pochard

South African Shelduck (Tadorna cana)

South African Shelduck x Andean Goose

South African Shelduck x Upland Goose

South African Shelduck x Egyptian Goose

South African x Ruddy Shelduck

South African x Australian Shelduck

South African x Paradise Shelduck

South African x Common Shelduck

South African Shelduck x Spur-winged Goose

Australian Shelduck (Tadorna tadornoides)

Australian Shelduck x Bar-headed Goose

Australian Shelduck x Ashy-headed Goose

Australian Shelduck x Egyptian Goose

Australian x Ruddy Shelduck

Australian x South African Shelduck

Australian Shelduck x Mallard

Paradise Shelduck (Tadorna variegata)

Paradise Shelduck x Bar-headed Goose

Paradise Shelduck x Upland Goose

Paradise Shelduck x Ashy-headed Goose

Paradise x Ruddy Shelduck

Paradise x South African Shelduck

Paradise x Common Shelduck

Paradise Shelduck x Northern Pintail

Paradise Shelduck x Mallard

Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna)

Common Shelduck x Bar-headed Goose

Common Shelduck x Graylag Goose

Common Shelduck x Swan Goose

Common Shelduck x Orinoco Goose

Common x Radjah Shelduck

Common Shelduck x Egyptian Goose

Common x Ruddy Shelduck

Common x South African Shelduck

Common x Paradise Shelduck

Common Shelduck x Spur-winged Goose

Common Shelduck x Muscovy Duck

Common Shelduck x Wood Duck

Common Shelduck x Mallard

Common Shelduck x Gadwall

Common Shelduck x Falcated Duck

Common Shelduck x Common Pochard

Common Shelduck x Red-crested Pochard

Common Shelduck x Common Merganser

Common Shelduck x Common Eider

Spur-winged Goose (Plectropterus)

Spur-winged Goose (Plectropterus gambensis)

Spur-winged x Swan Goose

Spur-winged x Upland Goose

Spur-winged x Egyptian Goose

Spur-winged Goose x Ruddy Shelduck

Spur-winged Goose x South African Shelduck

Spur-winged Goose x Common Shelduck

Spur-winged Goose x Muscovy Duck

Steamer-Ducks (Tachyeres)

Flying Steamer-Duck (Tachyeres patachonicus)
Flightless Steamer-Duck (Tachyeres pteneres)

Flightless x Falkland Steamer-Duck

Falkland Steamer-Duck (Tachyeres brachypterus)

Falkland x Flightless Steamer-Duck

White-headed Steamer-Duck (Tachyeres leucocephalus)

Crested Duck (Lophonetta)

Crested Duck (Lophonetta specularioides)

Crested Duck x Chiloe Wigeon

Spectacled Duck (Speculanas)

Spectacled Duck (Speculanas specularis)

Spectacled Duck x Mallard

Spectacled Duck x Barrow’s Goldeneye

Muscovy Duck (Carina)

Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata)

Muscovy Duck x Snow Goose

Muscovy Duck x Graylag Goose

Muscovy Duck x Swan Goose

Muscovy Duck x Canada Goose

Muscovy x Knob-billed Duck

Muscovy Duck x Egyptian Goose

Muscovy Duck x Common Shelduck

Muscovy Duck x Spur-winged Goose

Muscovy x African Black Duck

Muscovy Duck x Mallard

Muscovy x American Black Duck

Muscovy x Pacific Black Duck

Muscovy Duck x American Wigeon

Muscovy Duck x Northern Shoveler

Muscovy x Mottled Duck

Muscovy x Meller’s Duck

Muscovy x White-winged Duck

Pygmy-Geese (Nettapus)

Green Pygmy-Goose (Nettapus pulchellus)
Cotton Pygmy-Goose (Nettapus coromandelianus)
African Pygmy-Goose (Nettapus auritus)

African Pygmy-Goose x Chiloe Wigeon

Ringed Teal (Callonetta)

Ringed Teal (Callonetta leucophrys)

Ringed Teal x Wood Duck

Ringed x Brazilian Teal

Ringed Teal x White-cheeked Pintail

Ringed Teal x Northern Shoveler

Ringed x Yellow-billed Teal

Ringed Teal x New Zealand Scaup

Wood and Mandarin Ducks (Aix)

Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)

Wood Duck x Ruddy Shelduck

Wood Duck x Common Shelduck

Wood Duck x Ringed Teal

Wood Duck x Brazilian Teal

Wood x Mandarin Duck

Wood Duck x American Wigeon

Wood Duck x Eurasian Wigeon

Wood Duck x Chiloe Wigeon

Wood Duck x Gadwall

Wood x Falcated Duck

Wood x Pacific Black Duck

Wood x Yellow-billed Duck

Wood Duck x Mallard

Wood x Indian Spot-billed Duck

Wood Duck x Silver Teal

Wood Duck x Puna Teal

Wood Duck x Garganey

Wood Duck x Green-winged Teal

Wood x Laysan Duck

Wood Duck x White-cheeked Pintail

Wood Duck x Northern Pintail

Wood Duck x Eaton’s Pintail

Wood Duck x Yellow-billed Pintail

Wood x Red-billed Duck

Wood Duck x Baikal Teal

Wood x Philippine Duck

Wood Duck x Yellow-billed Teal

Wood Duck x Chestnut Teal

Wood Duck x Northern Shoveler

Wood Duck x Cinnamon Teal

Wood Duck x Blue-winged Teal

Wood Duck x Blue-billed Teal

Wood Duck x Marbled Teal

Wood Duck x Lesser Scaup

Wood Duck x Greater Scaup

Wood Duck x Redhead

Wood Duck x Canvasback

Wood Duck x Baer’s Pochard

Wood x Ring-necked Duck

Wood Duck x Common Pochard

Wood x Tufted Duck

Wood Duck x New Zealand Scaup

Wood x Ferruginous Duck

Wood Duck x Rosy-billed Pochard

Wood Duck x Red-crested Pochard

Wood Duck x Hooded Merganser

Wood Duck x Red-breasted Merganser

Wood Duck x Bufflehead

Wood Duck x Common Goldeneye

Wood x Maned Duck

Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata)

Mandarin x Wood Duck

Mandarin x Laysan Duck

Mandarin Duck x Mallard

Mandarin Duck x Gadwall

Mandarin Duck x Redhead

Mandarin x Long-tailed Duck

Maned Duck (Chenonetta)

Maned Duck (Chenonetta jubata)

Maned Duck x Upland Goose

Maned Duck x Egyptian Goose

Maned x Wood Duck

Brazilian Teal (Amazonetta)

Brazilian Teal (Amazonetta brasiliensis)

Brazilian x Ringed Teal

Brazilian Teal x Wood Duck

Brazilian Teal x White-cheeked Pintail

Brazilian x Cape Teal

Brazilian x Chestnut Teal

Brazilian Teal x Red-billed Duck

Brazilian x Yellow-billed Teal

Brazilian Teal x Mallard

Brazilian x Gray Teal

Brazilian Teal x Common Pochard

Blue Duck (Hymenolaimus)

Blue Duck (Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos)

Blue x Pacific Black Duck

Torrent Duck (Merganetta)

Torrent Duck (Merganetta armata)

Salvadori’s Teal (Salvadorina)

Salvadori’s Teal (Salvadorina waigiuensis)

Baikal Teal (Sibirionetta)

Baikal Teal (Sibirionetta formosa)

Baikal Teal x Wood Duck

Baikal Teal x Northern Pintail

Baikal x Green-winged Teal

Baikal Teal x American Wigeon

Baikal Teal x Eurasian Wigeon

Baikal Teal x Chiloe Wigeon

Baikal x Yellow-billed Teal

Baikal x Silver Teal

Baikal Teal x Northern Shoveler

Baikal x Cinnamon Teal

Baikal Teal x Falcated Duck

Baikal Teal x Red-crested Pochard

Shovelers and Allies (Spatula)

Garganey (Spatula querquedula)

Garganey x Wood Duck

Garganey x Northern Shoveler

Garganey x Cinnamon Teal

Garganey x Blue-winged Teal

Garganey x Blue-billed Teal

Garganey x Red Shoveler

Garganey x Silver Teal

Garganey x Eurasian Wigeon

Garganey x Gadwall

Garganey x Green-winged Teal

Garganey x Northern Pintail

Garganey x Mallard

Garganey x Falcated Duck

Garganey x Common Pochard

Garganey x Tufted Duck

Garganey x Common Goldeneye

Blue-billed Teal (Spatula hottentota)

Blue-billed Teal x Wood Duck

Blue-billed Teal x Garganey

Blue-billed x Green-winged Teal

Blue-billed x Yellow-billed Teal

Blue-billed x Silver Teal

Silver Teal (Spatula versicolor)

Silver Teal x Wood Duck

Silver x Baikal Teal

Silver Teal x Garganey

Silver x Blue-billed Teal

Silver x Puna Teal

Silver Teal x Mallard

Puna Teal (Spatula puna)

Puna Teal x Wood Duck

Puna x Silver Teal

Blue-winged Teal (Spatula discors)

Blue-winged Teal x Wood Duck

Blue-winged Teal x Garganey

Blue-winged x Cinnamon Teal

Blue-winged Teal x Northern Shoveler

Blue-winged Teal x Red Shoveler

Blue-winged Teal x Gadwall

Blue-winged Teal x American Wigeon

Blue-winged x Green-winged Teal

Blue-winged Teal x Northern Pintail

Blue-winged x Chestnut Teal

Blue-winged Teal x Mallard

Blue-winged Teal x Redhead

Cinnamon Teal (Spatula cyanoptera)

Cinnamon Teal x Wood Duck

Cinnamon x Baikal Teal

Cinnamon Teal x Garganey

Cinnamon x Blue-winged Teal

Cinnamon Teal x Northern Shoveler

Cinnamon x Green-winged Teal

Cinnamon Teal x White-cheeked Pintail

Cinnamon x Yellow-billed Teal

Cinnamon Teal x Red Shoveler

Cinnamon Teal x Mallard

Cinnamon Teal x Cape Shoveler

Red Shoveler (Spatula platalea)

Red Shoveler x Garganey

Red Shoveler x Blue-winged Teal

Red Shoveler x Cinnamon Teal

Red x Northern Shoveler

Red x Cape Shoveler

Red Shoveler x Yellow-billed Teal

Red Shoveler x Ferruginous Duck

Cape Shoveler (Spatula smithii)

Cape Shoveler x Cinnamon Teal

Cape x Red Shoveler

Cape Shoveler x Red-billed Duck

Australian Shoveler (Spatula rhynchotis)

Australian Shoveler x Sunda Teal

Australian Shoveler x Gray Teal

Australian Shoveler x Pacific Black Duck

Australian Shoveler x New Zealand Scaup

Australian Shoveler x Falcated Duck

Northern Shoveler (Spatula clypeata)

Northern Shoveler x Muscovy Duck

Northern Shoveler x Ringed Teal

Northern Shoveler x Wood Duck

Northern Shoveler x Baikal Teal

Northern Shoveler x Garganey

Northern Shoveler x Blue-winged Teal

Northern Shoveler x Cinnamon Teal

Northern x Red Shoveler

Northern Shoveler x Gadwall

Northern Shoveler x Eurasian Wigeon

Northern Shoveler x American Wigeon

Northern Shoveler x Mallard

Northern Shoveler x Mottled Duck

Northern Shoveler x Northern Pintail

Northern Shoveler x Green-winged Teal

Northern Shoveler x Falcated Duck

Northern Shoveler x Redhead

Northern Shoveler x Ferruginous Duck

Wigeons and Allies (Mareca)

Gadwall (Mareca strepera)

Gadwall x Common Shelduck

Gadwall x Wood Duck

Gadwall x Mandarin Duck

Gadwall x Garganey

Gadwall x Northern Shoveler

Gadwall x Blue-winged Teal

Gadwall x Falcated Duck

Gadwall x Eurasian Wigeon

Gadwall x American Wigeon

Gadwall x Chiloe Wigeon

Gadwall x Mallard

Gadwall x American Black Duck

Gadwall x Pacific Black Duck

Gadwall x Yellow-billed Duck

Gadwall x Northern Pintail

Gadwall x Green-winged Teal

Gadwall x Chestnut Teal

Gadwall x Yellow-billed Teal

Gadwall x Yellow-billed Pintail

Gadwall x Hooded Merganser

Falcated Duck (Mareca falcata)

Falcated Duck x Ruddy Shelduck

Falcated Duck x Common Shelduck

Falcated x Wood Duck

Falcated Duck x Baikal Teal

Falcated Duck x Garganey

Falcated Duck x Australian Shoveler

Falcated Duck x Northern Shoveler

Falcated Duck x Gadwall

Falcated Duck x Eurasian Wigeon

Falcated Duck x American Wigeon

Falcated Duck x Chiloe Wigeon

Falcated Duck x White-cheeked Pintail

Falcated Duck x Chestnut Teal

Falcated Duck x Green-winged Teal

Falcated Duck x Laysan Duck

Falcated Duck x Mallard

Eurasian Wigeon (Mareca penelope)

Eurasian Wigeon x Wood Duck

Eurasian Wigeon x Baikal Teal

Eurasian Wigeon x Garganey

Eurasian Wigeon x Northern Shoveler

Eurasian Wigeon x Gadwall

Eurasian Wigeon x Falcated Duck

Eurasian x American Wigeon

Eurasian x Chiloe Wigeon

Eurasian Wigeon x Mallard

Eurasian Wigeon x Northern Pintail

Eurasian Wigeon x White-cheeked Pintail

Eurasian Wigeon x Yellow-billed Pintail

Eurasian Wigeon x Green-winged Teal

Eurasian Wigeon x Chestnut Teal

Eurasian Wigeon x Ring-necked Duck

Eurasian Wigeon x Common Pochard

Eurasian Wigeon x Tufted Duck

Eurasian Wigeon x Red-crested Pochard

Eurasian Wigeon x Common Scoter

American Wigeon (Mareca americana)

American Wigeon x Muscovy Duck

American Wigeon x Wood Duck

American Wigeon x Baikal Teal

American Wigeon x Blue-winged Teal

American Wigeon x Northern Shoveler

American Wigeon x Gadwall

American Wigeon x Falcated Duck

American x Eurasian Wigeon

American x Chiloe Wigeon

American Wigeon x Philippine Duck

American Wigeon x Mallard

American Wigeon x American Black Duck

American Wigeon x Northern Pintail

American Wigeon x White-cheeked Pintail

American Wigeon x Green-winged Teal

American Wigeon x Redhead

American Wigeon x Canvasback

American Wigeon x Lesser Scaup

American Wigeon x Tufted Duck

American Wigeon x Red-crested Pochard

Chiloe Wigeon (Mareca sibilatrix)

Chiloe Wigeon x African Pygmy-Goose

Chiloe Wigeon x Crested Duck

Chiloe Wigeon x Wood Duck

Chiloe Wigeon x Baikal Teal

Chiloe Wigeon x Gadwall

Chiloe Wigeon x Falcated Duck

Chiloe x Eurasian Wigeon

Chiloe x American Wigeon

Chiloe Wigeon x Cape Teal

Chiloe Wigeon x Northern Pintail

Chiloe Wigeon x White-cheeked Pintail

Chiloe Wigeon x Yellow-billed Pintail

Chiloe Wigeon x Chestnut Teal

Chiloe Wigeon x Mottled Duck

Chiloe Wigeon x Laysan Duck

Chiloe Wigeon x Mallard

Chiloe Wigeon x Philippine Duck

Chiloe Wigeon x Common Pochard

Chiloe Wigeon x Tufted Duck

Chiloe Wigeon x Red-crested Pochard

Mallards, Pintails, and Allies (Anas)

African Black Duck (Anas sparsa)

African Black x Muscovy Duck

African Black x Yellow-billed Duck

African Black Duck x Mallard

African Black Duck x Common Pochard

African Black Duck x Red-crested Pochard

Yellow-billed Duck (Anas undulata)

Yellow-billed x Wood Duck

Yellow-billed Duck x Gadwall

Yellow-billed x African Black Duck

Yellow-billed Duck x Mallard

Yellow-billed x Mottled Duck

Yellow-billed x Laysan Duck

Yellow-billed x Meller’s Duck

Yellow-billed x Indian Spot-billed Duck

Yellow-billed x American Black Duck

Yellow-billed x Pacific Black Duck

Yellow-billed Duck x Northern Pintail

Yellow-billed Duck x Cape Teal

Yellow-billed x Red-billed Duck

Yellow-billed Duck x Gadwall

Yellow-billed Duck x Greater Scaup

Yellow-billed Duck x Southern Pochard

Yellow-billed Duck x Rosy-billed Pochard

Yellow-billed Duck x Red-crested Pochard

Meller's Duck (Anas melleri)

Meller’s x Muscovy Duck

Meller’s x Yellow-billed Duck

Meller’s Duck x Northern Pintail

Meller’s Duck x Mallard

Meller’s x Indian Spot-billed Duck

Meller’s x American Black Duck

Meller’s x Pacific Black Duck

Meller’s Duck x Common Pochard

Pacific Black Duck (Anas superciliosa)

Pacific Black x Muscovy Duck

Pacific Black x Wood Duck

Pacific Black x Blue Duck

Pacific Black Duck x Australian Shoveler

Pacific Black Duck x Gadwall

Pacific Black x Yellow-billed Duck

Pacific Black x Meller’s Duck

Pacific Black Duck x Gray Teal

Pacific Black Duck x Chestnut Teal

Pacific Black Duck x Mallard

Pacific Black Duck x Northern Pintail

Pacific Black x Mottled Duck

Pacific Black Duck x Yellow-billed Pintail

Pacific Black Duck x Sunda Teal

Pacific Black x Philippine Duck

Pacific Black x Indian Spot-billed Duck

Pacific Black x American Black Duck

Pacific Black Duck x Rosy-billed Pochard

Pacific Black Duck x Red-crested Pochard

Laysan Duck (Anas laysanensis)

Laysan x Wood Duck

Laysan x Mandarin Duck

Laysan x Falcated Duck

Laysan Duck x Chiloe Wigeon

Laysan x Yellow-billed Duck

Laysan Duck x Mallard

Laysan Duck x White-cheeked Pintail

Laysan Duck x Yellow-billed Pintail

Laysan x Red-billed Duck

Laysan Duck x Yellow-billed Teal

Laysan x Hawaiian Duck

Hawaiian Duck (Anas wyvilliana)

Hawaiian x Laysan Duck

Hawaiian Duck x Mallard

Hawaiian Duck x Chestnut Teal

Philippine Duck (Anas luzonica)

Philippine x Wood Duck

Philippine Duck x American Wigeon

Philippine Duck x Chiloe Wigeon

Philippine x Pacific Black Duck

Philippine x Indian Spot-billed Duck

Philippine Duck x Mallard

Philippine Duck x Chestnut Teal

Indian Spot-billed Duck (Anas poecilorhyncha)

Indian Spot-billed x Wood Duck

Indian Spot-billed x Yellow-billed Duck

Indian Spot-billed x Meller’s Duck

Indian Spot-billed x Pacific Black Duck

Indian Spot-billed x American Black Duck

Indian Spot-billed x Philippine Duck

Indian Spot-billed Duck x Mallard

Indian Spot-billed Duck x Northern Pintail

Indian Spot-billed Duck x Yellow-billed Pintail

Indian Spot-billed Duck x Sunda Teal

Indian Spot-billed x Eastern Spot-billed Duck

Indian Spot-billed Duck x Red-crested Pochard

Eastern Spot-billed Duck (Anas zonorhyncha)

Eastern Spot-billed x Indian Spot-billed Duck

Eastern Spot-billed Duck x Mallard

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

Mallard x Graylag Goose

Mallard x Swan Goose

Mallard x Barnacle Goose

Mallard x Cackling Goose

Mallard x Knob-billed Duck

Mallard x Egyptian Goose

Mallard x Ruddy Shelduck

Mallard x Australian Shelduck

Mallard x Paradise Shelduck

Mallard x Common Shelduck

Mallard x Muscovy Duck

Mallard x Wood Duck

Mallard x Mandarin Duck

Mallard x Brazilian Teal

Mallard x Garganey

Mallard x Silver Teal

Mallard x Blue-winged Teal

Mallard x Cinnamon Teal

Mallard x Northern Shoveler

Mallard x Gadwall

Mallard x Falcated Duck

Mallard x Eurasian Wigeon

Mallard x American Wigeon

Mallard x Chiloe Wigeon

Mallard x African Black Duck

Mallard x Yellow-billed Duck

Mallard x Meller’s Duck

Mallard x Pacific Black Duck

Mallard x Laysan Duck

Mallard x Hawaiian Duck

Mallard x Philippine Duck

Mallard x Indian Spot-billed Duck

Mallard x Eastern Spot-billed Duck

Mallard x Mexican Duck

Mallard x American Black Duck

Mallard x Mottled Duck

Mallard x White-cheeked Pintail

Mallard x Northern Pintail

Mallard x Yellow-billed Pintail

Mallard x Green-winged Teal

Mallard x Brown Teal

Mallard x Auckland Islands Teal

Mallard x Chestnut Teal

Mallard x Yellow-billed Teal

Mallard x Sunda Teal

Mallard x Gray Teal

Mallard x Silver Teal

Mallard x Spectacled Duck

Mallard x Redhead

Mallard x Canvasback

Mallard x Hardhead

Mallard x Ring-necked Duck

Mallard x Common Pochard

Mallard x Tufted Duck

Mallard x Ferruginous Duck

Mallard x Rosy-billed Pochard

Mallard x Red-crested Pochard

Mallard x Common Goldeneye

Mallard x Common Merganser

Mallard x Red-breasted Merganser

Mallard x Steller’s Eider

Mallard x Common Eider

Mallard x White-winged Duck

Mexican Duck (Anas diazi)

Mexican Duck x Mallard

Mexican x Mottled Duck

American Black Duck (Anas rubripes)

American Black x Muscovy Duck

American Black Duck x Gadwall

American Black Duck x American Wigeon

American Black x Yellow-billed Duck

American Black x Meller’s Duck

American Black x Pacific Black Duck

American Black x Indian Spot-billed Duck

American Black Duck x Mallard

American Black Duck x Mottled Duck

American Black Duck x Northern Pintail

American Black Duck x Common Pochard

Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula)

Mottled x Muscovy Duck

Mottled Duck x Northern Shoveler

Mottled Duck x Chiloe Wigeon

Mottled x Yellow-billed Duck

Mottled x Pacific Black Duck

Mottled Duck x Mallard

Mottled x Mexican Duck

Mottled x American Black Duck

Cape Teal (Anas capensis)

Cape x Brazilian Teal

Cape Teal x Chiloe Wigeon

Cape Teal x Yellow-billed Duck

Cape Teal x White-cheeked Pintail

Cape Teal x Northern Pintail

Cape x Chestnut Teal

Cape Teal x Red-billed Duck

Cape x Yellow-billed Teal

Cape Teal x Tufted Duck

White-cheeked Pintail (Anas bahamensis)

White-cheeked Pintail x Ringed Teal

White-cheeked Pintail x Wood Duck

White-cheeked Pintail x Brazilian Teal

White-cheeked Pintail x Cinnamon Teal

White-cheeked Pintail x Falcated Duck

White-cheeked Pintail x American Wigeon

White-cheeked Pintail x Eurasian Wigeon

White-cheeked Pintail x Chiloe Wigeon

White-cheeked Pintail x Laysan Duck

White-cheeked Pintail x Mallard

White-cheeked Pintail x Cape Teal

White-cheeked Pintail x Chestnut Teal

White-cheeked x Yellow-billed Pintail

White-cheeked Pintail x Yellow-billed Teal

White-cheeked Pintail x Rosy-billed Pochard

Red-billed Duck (Anas erythrorhyncha)

Red-billed x Wood Duck

Red-billed Duck x Brazilian Teal

Red-billed Duck x Cape Shoveler

Red-billed Duck x White-cheeked Pintail

Red-billed x Yellow-billed Duck

Red-billed x Laysan Duck

Red-billed Duck x Cape Teal

Red-billed Duck x Chestnut Teal

Red-billed Duck x Yellow-billed Teal

Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

Northern Pintail x Paradise Shelduck

Northern Pintail x Wood Duck

Northern Pintail x Baikal Teal

Northern Pintail x Garganey

Northern Pintail x Blue-winged Teal

Northern Pintail x Northern Shoveler

Northern Pintail x Gadwall

Northern Pintail x Eurasian Wigeon

Northern Pintail x American Wigeon

Northern Pintail x Chiloe Wigeon

Northern Pintail x Yellow-billed Duck

Northern Pintail x Meller’s Duck

Northern Pintail x Pacific Black Duck

Northern Pintail x Indian Spot-billed Duck

Northern Pintail x Mallard

Northern Pintail x American Black Duck

Northern Pintail x Cape Teal

Northern Pintail x Green-winged Teal

Northern x White-cheeked Pintail

Northern Pintail x Chestnut Teal

Northern Pintail x Yellow-billed Teal

Northern x Yellow-billed Pintail

Northern Pintail x Red-crested Pochard

Northern Pintail x Rosy-billed Pochard

Northern Pintail x Common Pochard

Northern Pintail x Tufted Duck

Northern Pintail x Redhead

Northern Pintail x Ferruginous Duck

Northern Pintail x Common Eider

Eaton's Pintail (Anas eatoni)

Eaton’s Pintail x Wood Duck

Yellow-billed Pintail (Anas georgica)

Yellow-billed Pintail x Wood Duck

Yellow-billed Pintail x Gadwall

Yellow-billed Pintail x Eurasian Wigeon

Yellow-billed Pintail x Chiloe Wigeon

Yellow-billed Pintail x Pacific Black Duck

Yellow-billed Pintail x Laysan Duck

Yellow-billed Pintail x Indian Spot-billed Duck

Yellow-billed Pintail x Mallard

Yellow-billed x Northern Pintail

Yellow-billed x White-cheeked Pintail

Yellow-billed Pintail x Cape Teal

Yellow-billed Pintail x Yellow-billed Teal

Yellow-billed Pintail x Rosy-billed Pochard

Yellow-billed Pintail x Red-crested Pochard

Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca)

Green-winged Teal x Wood Duck

Green-winged x Baikal Teal

Green-winged Teal x Garganey

Green-winged x Blue-billed Teal

Green-winged x Blue-winged Teal

Green-winged x Cinnamon Teal

Green-winged Teal x Northern Shoveler

Green-winged Teal x Gadwall

Green-winged Teal x Falcated Duck

Green-winged Teal x Eurasian Wigeon

Green-winged Teal x American Wigeon

Green-winged Teal x Mallard

Green-winged Teal x Northern Pintail

Green-winged x Yellow-billed Teal

Green-winged Teal x White-cheeked Pintail

Green-winged x Chestnut Teal

Green-winged Teal x Ring-necked Duck

Green-winged Teal x Common Pochard

Andean Teal (Anas andium)
Yellow-billed Teal (Anas flavirostris)

Yellow-billed x Ringed Teal

Yellow-billed Teal x Wood Duck

Yellow-billed x Brazilian Teal

Yellow-billed x Baikal Teal

Yellow-billed x Blue-billed Teal

Yellow-billed x Cinnamon Teal

Yellow-billed Teal x Red Shoveler

Yellow-billed Teal x Gadwall

Yellow-billed Teal x Laysan Duck

Yellow-billed Teal x Mallard

Yellow-billed x Cape Teal

Yellow-billed Teal x White-cheeked Pintail

Yellow-billed Teal x Red-billed Duck

Yellow-billed Teal x Northern Pintail

Yellow-billed Teal x Yellow-billed Pintail

Yellow-billed x Marbled Teal

Yellow-billed x Chestnut Teal

Yellow-billed x Green-winged Teal

Yellow-billed Teal x Ferruginous Duck

Andaman Teal (Anas albogularis)
Sunda Teal (Anas gibberifrons)

Sunda Teal x Australian Shoveler

Sunda Teal x Pacific Black Duck

Sunda Teal x Indian Spot-billed Duck

Sunda Teal x Mallard

Sunda x Gray Teal

Sunda x Chestnut Teal

Gray Teal (Anas gracilis)

Gray x Brazilian Teal

Gray Teal x Australian Shoveler

Gray Teal x Pacific Black Duck

Gray Teal x Mallard

Gray x Sunda Teal

Gray x Chestnut Teal

Gray x Brown Teal

Gray Teal x Hardhead

Chestnut Teal (Anas castanea)

Chestnut Teal x Wood Duck

Chestnut x Brazilian Teal

Chestnut x Blue-winged Teal

Chestnut Teal x Gadwall

Chestnut Teal x Falcated Duck

Chestnut Teal x Eurasian Wigeon

Chestnut Teal x Chiloe Wigeon

Chestnut Teal x Pacific Black Duck

Chestnut Teal x Hawaiian Duck

Chestnut Teal x Philippine Duck

Chestnut Teal x Mallard

Chestnut x Cape Teal

Chestnut Teal x White-cheeked Pintail

Chestnut Teal x Red-billed Duck

Chestnut Teal x Northern Pintail

Chestnut x Green-winged Teal

Chestnut x Yellow-billed Teal

Chestnut x Sunda Teal

Chestnut x Gray Teal

Chestnut Teal x Southern Pochard

Chestnut Teal x Baer’s Pochard

Chestnut Teal x Tufted Duck

Chestnut Teal x Long-tailed Duck

Bernier’s Teal (Anas bernieri)
Auckland Islands Teal (Anas aucklandica)

Auckland Islands Teal x Mallard

Campbell Islands Teal (Anas nesiotis)
Brown Teal (Anas chlorotis)

Brown Teal x Mallard

Brown x Gray Teal

Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus)

Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus)

Marbled Teal (Marmaronetta)

Marbled Teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris)

Marbled Teal x Wood Duck

Marbled x Yellow-billed Teal

Marbled Teal x Ferruginous Duck

White-winged Duck (Asarcornis)

White-winged Duck (Asarcornis scutulata)

White-winged x Muscovy Duck

White-winged Duck x Mallard

Dabbling Pochards (Netta)

Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina)

Red-crested Pochard x Common Shelduck

Red-crested Pochard x Wood Duck

Red-crested Pochard x Baikal Teal

Red-crested Pochard x Eurasian Wigeon

Red-crested Pochard x American Wigeon

Red-crested Pochard x Chiloe Wigeon

Red-crested Pochard x African Black Duck

Red-crested Pochard x Yellow-billed Duck

Red-crested Pochard x Pacific Black Duck

Red-crested Pochard x Indian Spot-billed Duck

Red-crested Pochard x Mallard

Red-crested Pochard x Northern Pintail

Red-crested Pochard x Yellow-billed Pintail

Red-crested x Rosy-billed Pochard

Red-crested x Common Pochard

Red-crested x Southern Pochard

Red-crested Pochard x Ferruginous Duck

Red-crested Pochard x Tufted Duck

Red-crested Pochard x Greater Scaup

Red-crested Pochard x Redhead

Red-crested Pochard x Canvasback

Red-crested Pochard x Ring-necked Duck

Southern Pochard (Netta erythrophthalma)

Southern Pochard x Yellow-billed Duck

Southern Pochard x Chestnut Teal

Southern x Red-crested Pochard

Southern x Common Pochard

Southern Pochard x Tufted Duck

Southern Pochard x New Zealand Scaup

Southern Pochard x Ferruginous Duck

Southern Pochard x Canvasback

Rosy-billed Pochard (Netta peposaca)

Rosy-billed Pochard x White-faced Whistling Duck

Rosy-billed Pochard x Comb Duck

Rosy-billed Pochard x Ruddy Shelduck

Rosy-billed Pochard x Wood Duck

Rosy-billed Pochard x Yellow-billed Duck

Rosy-billed Pochard x Pacific Black Duck

Rosy-billed Pochard x Mallard

Rosy-billed Pochard x White-cheeked Pintail

Rosy-billed Pochard x Northern Pintail

Rosy-billed Pochard x Yellow-billed Pintail

Rosy-billed x Red-crested Pochard

Rosy-billed x Common Pochard

Rosy-billed Pochard x Redhead

Rosy-billed Pochard x Canvasback

Rosy-billed Pochard x Greater Scaup

Rosy-billed Pochard x Ferruginous Duck

Scaups and Allies (Aythya)

Canvasback (Aythya valisineria)

Canvasback x Wood Duck

Canvasback x American Wigeon

Canvasback x Mallard

Canvasback x Red-crested Pochard

Canvasback x Southern Pochard

Canvasback x Rosy-billed Pochard

Canvasback x Redhead

Canvasback x Common Pochard

Canvasback x Ring-necked Duck

Canvasback x Lesser Scaup

Canvasback x Greater Scaup

Canvasback x Tufted Duck

Canvasback x Ferruginous Duck

Redhead (Aythya americana)

Redhead x Wood Duck

Redhead x Mandarin Duck

Redhead x Blue-winged Teal

Redhead x Northern Shoveler

Redhead x American Wigeon

Redhead x Mallard

Redhead x Northern Pintail

Redhead x Red-crested Pochard

Redhead x Rosy-billed Pochard

Redhead x Canvasback

Redhead x Common Pochard

Redhead x Ring-necked Duck

Redhead x Greater Scaup

Redhead x Lesser Scaup

Redhead x Baer’s Pochard

Redhead x Tufted Duck

Redhead x Hooded Merganser

Redhead x Common Merganser

Common Pochard (Aythya ferina)

Common Pochard x Common Shelduck

Common Pochard x Wood Duck

Common Pochard x Brazilian Teal

Common Pochard x Garganey

Common Pochard x Eurasian Wigeon

Common Pochard x Chiloe Wigeon

Common Pochard x African Black Duck

Common Pochard x Meller’s Duck

Common Pochard x Mallard

Common Pochard x American Black Duck

Common Pochard x Northern Pintail

Common Pochard x Green-winged Teal

Common x Red-crested Pochard

Common x Southern Pochard

Common x Rosy-billed Pochard

Common Pochard x Canvasback

Common Pochard x Redhead

Common Pochard x Ferruginous Duck

Common Pochard x Ring-necked Duck

Common Pochard x Tufted Duck

Common Pochard x Lesser Scaup

Common Pochard x Greater Scaup

Common Pochard x New Zealand Scaup

Common x Baer’s Pochard

Common Pochard x Common Goldeneye

Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris)

Ring-necked x Wood Duck

Ring-necked Duck x Eurasian Wigeon

Ring-necked Duck x Mallard

Ring-necked Duck x Green-winged Teal

Ring-necked Duck x Red-crested Pochard

Ring-necked Duck x Canvasback

Ring-necked Duck x Redhead

Ring-necked Duck x Common Pochard

Ring-necked x Ferruginous Duck

Ring-necked x Tufted Duck

Ring-necked Duck x New Zealand Scaup

Ring-necked Duck x Greater Scaup

Ring-necked Duck x Lesser Scaup

Ring-necked Duck x Red-breasted Merganser

Ring-necked x Ruddy Duck

Ferruginous Duck (Aythya nyroca)

Ferruginous x Wood Duck

Ferruginous Duck x Red Shoveler

Ferruginous Duck x Northern Shoveler

Ferruginous Duck x Mallard

Ferruginous Duck x Northern Pintail

Ferruginous Duck x Yellow-billed Teal

Ferruginous Duck x Marbled Teal

Ferruginous Duck x Red-crested Pochard

Ferruginous Duck x Southern Pochard

Ferruginous Duck x Rosy-billed Pochard

Ferruginous Duck x Canvasback

Ferruginous Duck x Common Pochard

Ferruginous x Ring-necked Duck

Ferruginous Duck x Madagascar Pochard

Ferruginous Duck x Baer’s Pochard

Ferruginous x Tufted Duck

Ferruginous Duck x Greater Scaup

Ferruginous Duck x Lesser Scaup

Ferruginous Duck x New Zealand Scaup

Ferruginous Duck x Common Goldeneye

Madagascar Pochard (Aythya innotata)

Madagascar Pochard x Ferruginous Duck

Baer's Pochard (Aythya baeri)

Baer’s Pochard x Wood Duck

Baer’s Pochard x Chestnut Teal

Baer’s Pochard x Redhead

Baer’s x Common Pochard

Baer’s Pochard x Ferruginous Duck

Baer’s Pochard x New Zealand Scaup

Hardhead (Aythya australis)

Hardhead x Mallard

Hardhead x Gray Teal

Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula)

Tufted x Wood Duck

Tufted Duck x Garganey

Tufted Duck x Eurasian Wigeon

Tufted Duck x American Wigeon

Tufted Duck x Chiloe Wigeon

Tufted Duck x Mallard

Tufted Duck x Cape Teal

Tufted Duck x Northern Pintail

Tufted Duck x Chestnut Teal

Tufted Duck x Red-crested Pochard

Tufted Duck x Southern Pochard

Tufted Duck x Canvasback

Tufted Duck x Redhead

Tufted Duck x Common Pochard

Tufted x Ring-necked Duck

Tufted x Ferruginous Duck

Tufted Duck x Greater Scaup

Tufted Duck x Lesser Scaup

Tufted Duck x New Zealand Scaup

Tufted Duck x Bufflehead

Tufted Duck x Common Goldeneye

Tufted Duck x King Eider

New Zealand Scaup (Aythya novaeseelandiae)

New Zealand Scaup x Ringed Teal

New Zealand Scaup x Wood Duck

New Zealand Scaup x Australian Shoveler

New Zealand Scaup x Southern Pochard

New Zealand Scaup x Common Pochard

New Zealand Scaup x Ring-necked Duck

New Zealand Scaup x Ferruginous Duck

New Zealand Scaup x Baer’s Pochard

New Zealand Scaup x Tufted Duck

New Zealand x Lesser Scaup

Greater Scaup (Aythya marila)

Greater Scaup x Wood Duck

Greater Scaup x Yellow-billed Duck

Greater Scaup x Red-crested Pochard

Greater Scaup x Rosy-billed Pochard

Greater Scaup x Canvasback

Greater Scaup x Redhead

Greater Scaup x Common Pochard

Greater Scaup x Ring-necked Duck

Greater Scaup x Ferruginous Duck

Greater Scaup x Tufted Duck

Greater x Lesser Scaup

Greater Scaup x Common Goldeneye

Greater Scaup x Ruddy Duck

Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis)

Lesser Scaup x Wood Duck

Lesser Scaup x American Wigeon

Lesser Scaup x Canvasback

Lesser Scaup x Redhead

Lesser Scaup x Common Pochard

Lesser Scaup x Ring-necked Duck

Lesser Scaup x Ferruginous Duck

Lesser Scaup x Tufted Duck

Lesser x New Zealand Scaup

Lesser x Greater Scaup

Steller's Eider (Polysticta)

Steller's Eider (Polysticta stelleri)

Steller’s Eider x Mallard

Steller’s x Common Eider

Typical Eiders (Somateria)

Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri)

Spectacled x King Eider

Spectacled Eider x Velvet Scoter

King Eider (Somateria spectabilis)

King Eider x Tufted Duck

King x Spectacled Eider

King x Common Eider

Common Eider (Somateria mollissima)

Common Eider x Common Shelduck

Common Eider x Mallard

Common Eider x Northern Pintail

Common x Steller’s Eider

Common x King Eider

Common Eider x Velvet Scoter

Common Eider x Common Merganser

Common Eider x Red-breasted Merganser

Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus)

Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus)

Scoters (Melanitta)

Surf Scoter (Melanitta perspicillata)

Surf x Velvet Scoter

Surf x White-winged Scoter

Velvet Scoter (Melanitta fusca)

Velvet Scoter x Spectacled Eider

Velvet Scoter x Common Eider

Velvet x Surf Scoter

Velvet x White-winged Scoter

Velvet x Stejnerger’s Scoter

Velvet Scoter x Common Goldeneye

White-winged Scoter (Melanitta deglandi)

White-winged x Surf Scoter

White-winged x Velvet Scoter

White-winged Scoter x Common Goldeneye

Stejneger's Scoter (Melanitta stejnegeri)

Stejneger’s x Velvet Scoter

Common Scoter (Melanitta nigra)

Common Scoter x Eurasian Wigeon

Common x Black Scoter

Black Scoter (Melanitta americana)

Black x Common Scoter

Long-tailed Duck (Clangula)

Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis)

Long-tailed x Mandarin Duck

Long-tailed Duck x Chestnut Teal

Bufflehead and Goldeneyes (Bucephala)

Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola)

Bufflehead x Wood Duck

Bufflehead x Tufted Duck

Bufflehead x Common Goldeneye

Bufflehead x Barrow’s Goldeneye

Bufflehead x Hooded Merganser

Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula)

Common Goldeneye x Wood Duck

Common Goldeneye x Garganey

Common Goldeneye x Mallard

Common Goldeneye x Common Pochard

Common Goldeneye x Ferruginous Duck

Common Goldeneye x Tufted Duck

Common Goldeneye x Greater Scaup

Common Goldeneye x Velvet Scoter

Common Goldeneye x White-winged Scoter

Common Goldeneye x Bufflehead

Common x Barrow’s Goldeneye

Common Goldeneye x Smew

Common Goldeneye x Hooded Merganser

Common Goldeneye x Common Merganser

Common Goldeneye x Red-breasted Merganser

Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica)

Barrow’s Goldeneye x Spectacled Duck

Barrow’s Goldeneye x Bufflehead

Barrow’s x Common Goldeneye

Barrow’s Goldeneye x Hooded Merganser

Smew (Mergellus)

Smew (Mergellus albellus)

Smew x Common Goldeneye

Smew x Hooded Merganser

Smew x Common Merganser

Smew x Red-breasted Merganser

Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes)

Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus)

Hooded Merganser x Wood Duck

Hooded Merganser x Gadwall

Hooded Merganser x Redhead

Hooded Merganser x Bufflehead

Hooded Merganser x Common Goldeneye

Hooded Merganser x Barrow’s Goldeneye

Hooded Merganser x Smew

Hooded x Common Merganser

Hooded x Red-breasted Merganser

Typical Mergansers (Mergus)

Common Merganser (Mergus merganser)

Common Merganser x Common Shelduck

Common Merganser x Mallard

Common Merganser x Redhead

Common Merganser x Common Eider

Common Merganser x Common Goldeneye

Common Merganser x Smew

Common x Hooded Merganser

Common x Red-breasted Merganser

Brazilian Merganser (Mergus octosetaceus)
Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator)

Red-breasted Merganser x Wood Duck

Red-breasted Merganser x Mallard

Red-breasted Merganser x Ring-necked Duck

Red-breasted Merganser x Common Eider

Red-breasted Merganser x Common Goldeneye

Red-breasted Merganser x Smew

Red-breasted x Hooded Merganser

Red-breasted x Common Merganser

Scaly-sided Merganser (Mergus squamatus)

Black-headed Duck (Heteronetta)

Black-headed Duck (Heteronetta atricapilla)

Masked Duck (Nomonyx)

Masked Duck (Nomonyx dominicus)

Typical Stifftails (Oxyura)

Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)

Ruddy x Ring-necked Duck

Ruddy Duck x Greater Scaup

Ruddy x White-headed Duck

Ruddy x Andean Duck

Andean Duck (Oxyura ferruginea)

Andean x Ruddy Duck

Andean x Lake Duck

White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala)

White-headed x Ruddy Duck

Maccoa Duck (Oxyura maccoa)
Lake Duck (Oxyura vittata)

Lake x Andean Duck

Blue-billed Duck (Oxyura australis)

Musk Duck (Biziura)

Musk Duck (Biziura lobata)

Tri-species & Misc Hybrids

(Graylag x Swan Goose) x Canada Goose

Snow x Bar-headed x Swan Goose

(Graylag x Swan Goose) x Mute Swan

(Gadwall x Eurasian Wigeon) x Northern Pintail

Hybrid Accounts:

Plumed x White-faced Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna eytoni x viduata)


Plumed x Wandering Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna eytoni x arcuata)



White-faced x Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna viduata x autumnalis)


White-faced x West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna viduata x arborea)

Bird Hybrids

White-faced x Fulvous Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna viduata x bicolor)

Bird Hybrids

Black-bellied x Fulvous Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis x bicolor)

Bird Hybrids

Black-bellied x West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis x arborea)


Bar-headed x Swan Goose (Anser indicus x cygnoides)

Bird Hybrids
More Info

Bar-headed x Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser indicus x albifrons)

Bird Hybrids

Bar-headed x Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser indicus x erythropus)

Photos & Info

Bar-headed x Graylag Goose (Anser indicus x anser)

Bird Hybrids
Photo (Page 45)

Bar-headed x Snow Goose (Anser indicus x caerulescens)

Bird Hybrids
More Info

Bar-headed x Canada Goose (Anser indicus x Branta canadensis)

Bird Hybrids

Bar-headed x Barnacle Goose (Anser indicus x Branta leucopsis)

Bird Hybrids

Emperor x Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser canagicus x albifrons)

Photo(This is labeled as EMGO x GWFG, but I believe it fits EMGO x LWFG better perhaps? https://www.feathersite.com/Poultry/NDG/BRKEmperor.html)

Emperor x Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser canagicus x erythropus)


Emperor x Graylag Goose (Anser canagicus x anser)

Bird Hybrids

Emperor x Snow Goose (Anser canagicus x caerulescens)

Bird Hybrids

Emperor x Ross’s Goose (Anser canagicus x rossii)

Bird Hybrids

Emperor x Cackling Goose (Anser canagicus x Branta hutchinsii)

Bird Hybrids

Emperor x Barnacle Goose (Anser canagicus x Branta leucopsis)

Bird Hybrids

Snow x Ross's Goose (Anser caerulescens x rossii)

Other names: Snoss's Goose
Bird Hybrids

Snow x Swan Goose (Anser caerulescens x cygnoides)

Bird Hybrids

Snow x Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser caerulescens x albifrons)


Snow Goose x Brant (Anser caerulescens x Branta bernicla)

Other names: Bro Goose
More Examples & Discussion

Snow x Canada Goose (Anser caerulescens x Branta canadensis)

Bird Hybrids

Snow x Cackling Goose (Anser caerulescens x Branta hutchinsii)

Bird Hybrids

Snow x Barnacle Goose (Anser caerulescens x Branta leucopsis)

Bird Hybrids

Ross's x Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser rossii x albifrons)


Ross’s x Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser rossii x erythropus)

Bird Hybrids

Ross’s x Canada Goose (Anser rossii x Branta canadensis)

Bird Hybrids
Note: It's unclear how many of these actually represent Ross's x Canada rather than Ross's x Cackling.

Ross’s x Cackling Goose (Anser rossii x Branta hutchinsii)

Bird Hybrids

Ross’s x Barnacle Goose (Anser rossii x Branta leucopsis)

Bird Hybrids

Ross’s x Red-breasted Goose (Anser rossii x Branta ruficollis)

Probable (Juv)
Probable (Juv)

Graylag x Swan Goose (Anser anser x cygnoides)

Bird Hybrids
Both birds above appear to be (close-to?) wild-types. See Bird Hybrids for more examples of wild-type Graylag x Swan Geese.
Domestic Types

Graylag x Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser anser x albifrons)

Bird Hybrids
iNat Obs

Graylag x Canada Goose (Anser anser x Branta canadensis)

Bird Hybrids (wild-type)
Bird Hybrids (domestic type)

Comparison of the shape of the base of the bill. Note the flatter vertical appearance of both Swan Goose and Graylag Goose, and the more angular pushed-in shape of Canada Goose. Graylag x Canada Goose and Swan x Canada Goose hybrids tend to have an intermediate shape between these two.

Graylag x Cackling Goose (Anser anser x Branta hutchinsii)

Bird Hybrids

Graylag x Barnacle Goose (Anser anser x Branta leucopsis)

Bird Hybrids

Graylag/Swan Goose x Mute Swan (Anser anser/cygnoides x Cygnus olor)

Other names: Swoose
NOTE: I have decided not to separate Swan Goose x Mute Swan and Graylag Goose x Mute Swan due to the uncertainty of the identities of many domestic geese. As for the examples below, Jörn Lehmhus has said that as far as he knows all of these individuals' goose parents have been Graylag x Swan Goose. In other words all of the below individuals are Graylag x Swan Goose x Mute Swan.
Bird Hybrids

Graylag/Swan Goose x Mallard (Anser anser/cygnoides x Anas platyrhynchos)

Other names: Guck
All I've been able to track down about this is one interesting paper. Make of it what you will.

Swan x Canada Goose (Anser cygnoides x Branta canadensis)

Bird Hybrids

Comparison of the shape of the base of the bill. Note the flatter vertical appearance of both Swan Goose and Graylag Goose, and the more angular pushed-in shape of Canada Goose. Graylag x Canada Goose and Swan x Canada Goose hybrids tend to have an intermediate shape between these two.

Swan x Barnacle Goose (Anser cygnoides x Branta leucopsis)

Bird Hybrids

Greater White-fronted x Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons x erythropus)

Bird Hybrids
Research Paper

Greater White-fronted Goose x Tundra Bean-Goose (Anser albifrons x serrirostris)

Bird Hybrids

Greater White-fronted x Canada Goose (Anser albifrons x Branta canadensis)

Bird Hybrids
iNat obs

Greater White-fronted x Cackling Goose (Anser albifrons x Branta hutchinsii)

Bird Hybrids

Greater White-fronted x Barnacle Goose (Anser albifrons x Branta leucopsis)

Bird Hybrids

Greater White-fronted x Red-breasted Goose (Anser albifrons x Branta ruficollis)

Bird Hybrids

Lesser White-fronted x Barnacle Goose (Anser erythropus x Branta leucopsis)

Bird Hybrids

Lesser White-fronted x Cackling Goose (Anser erythropus x Branta hutchinsii)

Bird Hybrids

Lesser White-fronted x Canada Goose (Anser erythropus x Branta canadensis)

Bird Hybrids

Tundra Bean-Goose x Pink-footed Goose (Anser serrirostris x brachyrhynchus)

Bird Hybrids

Tundra Bean-Goose x Barnacle Goose (Anser serrirostris x Branta leucopsis)

Bird Hybrids

Brant x Cackling Goose (Branta bernicla x hutchinsii)

Photos and Info

Brant x Barnacle Goose (Branta bernicla x leucopsis)

Bird Hybrids

Brant x Red-breasted Goose (Branta bernicla x ruficollis)

Bird Hybrids

Barnacle x Cackling Goose (Branta leucopsis x hutchinsii)

Bird Hybrids

Barnacle Goose and hybrid offspring 10/17/20 from Sam Zhang on Vimeo.

Barnacle x Canada Goose (Branta leucopsis x canadensis)

Bird Hybrids

Barnacle Goose x Nēnē (Branta leucopsis x sandvicensis)


Barnacle x Red-breasted Goose (Branta leucopsis x ruficollis)

Bird Hybrids

Cacking x Red-breasted Goose (Branta hutchinsii x ruficollis)


Canada Goose x Mute Swan (Branta canadensis x Cygnus olor)

Other names: Swoose

Mute x Black Swan (Cygnus olor x atratus)

Other names: Chessboard Swan
Bird Hybrids
Photos and Discussion

Mute x Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus olor x buccinator)

Photos and Info

Mute x Whooper Swan (Cygnus olor x cygnus)

Bird Hybrids

Whooper x Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus cygnus x buccinator)

Other names: Trooper Swan

Five backcrossed ((WHOS x TRUS) x TRUS) offspring (center) with Trumpeter Swan parent (left) and hybrid (WHOS x TRUS) parent (right).
Four backcrossed hybrid offspring ((WHOS x TRUS) x TRUS) with Trumpeter Swan parent (left) (same individuals as above).

Trumpeter x Tundra Swan (Cygnus buccinator x columbianus)

Bird Hybrids

Orinoco Goose x Ruddy Shelduck (Oressochen jubatus x Tadorna ferruginea)

Photo and Discussion

Egyptian Goose x Ruddy Shelduck (Alopochen aegyptiaca x Tadorna ferruginea)

Bird Hybrids

Egyptian Goose x Muscovy Duck (Alopochen aegyptiaca x Cairina moschata)


Egyptian Goose x Mallard (Alopochen aegyptiaca x Anas platyrhynchos)

Bird Hybrids

Ruddy x South African Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea x cana)

Bird Hybrids

Ruddy x Australian Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea x tadornoides)

Bird Hybrids

Ruddy x Common Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea x tadorna)

Bird Hybrids
Photos and Info

Ruddy Shelduck x Mallard (Tadorna ferruginea x Anas platyrhynchos)

iNat Obs
iNat Obs
iNat Obs

South African x Australian Shelduck (Tadorna cana x tadornoides)

Possible Photos

South African x Paradise Shelduck (Tadorna cana x variegata)

Probable Photo

Common Shelduck x Wood Duck (Tadorna tadorna x Aix sponsa)

Bird Hybrids
iNat Obs

Common Shelduck x Common Merganser (Tadorna tadorna x Mergus merganser)

Research Paper

Common Shelduck x Common Eider (Tadorna tadorna x Somateria mollissima)

Photo and Discussion
Illustration (https://www.genesisnet.info/index.php?Artikel=1241&Sprache=de&l=1)
iNat Obs

Spur-winged Goose x Muscovy Duck (Plectropterus gambensis x Cairina moschata)


Muscovy Duck x Mallard (Cairina moschata x Anas platyrhynchos)

Other names: Mule Duck, Hinny Duck, Moulard, Mulard
Bird Hybrids
Helpful Journal Post

Ringed Teal x Wood Duck (Callonetta leucophrys x Aix sponsa)


Ringed x Yellow-billed Teal (Callonetta leucophrys x Anas flavirostris)

Bird Hybrids

Wood Duck x Chiloe Wigeon (Aix sponsa x Mareca sibilatrix)

Photo (https://www.backyardchickens.com/threads/wood-duck-hybrids-pictures-including-mallard-x-wood-duck.756201/)

Wood Duck x Mallard (Aix sponsa x Anas platyrhynchos)

Bird Hybrids
Apparently wild-type MALL x WODU
Apparently Domestic MALL x WODU

Wood Duck x Silver Teal (Aix sponsa x Spatula versicolor)

Photo https://www.backyardchickens.com/threads/wood-duck-hybrids-pictures-including-mallard-x-wood-duck.756201/

Wood Duck x White-cheeked Pintail (Aix sponsa x Anas bahamensis)

Bird Hybrids

Wood Duck x Northern Pintail (Aix sponsa x Anas acuta)

Bird Hybrids
iNat Obs
iNat Obs

Wood Duck x Chestnut Teal (Aix sponsa x Anas castanea)

Bird Hybrids

Wood Duck x Blue-winged Teal (Aix sponsa x Spatula discors)


Wood Duck x Greater Scaup (Aix sponsa x Aythya marila)

Bird Hybrids

Wood x Ring-necked Duck (Aix sponsa x Aythya collaris)


Wood Duck x Common Pochard (Aythya ferina)

Photo and Info

Wood x Tufted Duck (Aix sponsa x Aythya fuligula)


Wood x Ferruginous Duck (Aix sponsa x Aythya nyroca)

Photo (https://www.backyardchickens.com/threads/wood-duck-hybrids-pictures-including-mallard-x-wood-duck.756201/)

Wood Duck x Rosy-billed Pochard (Aix sponsa x Netta peposaca)


Wood Duck x Red-crested Pochard (Aix sponsa x Netta rufina)

Photo (https://www.backyardchickens.com/threads/wood-duck-hybrids-pictures-including-mallard-x-wood-duck.756201/)

Wood Duck x Hooded Merganser (Aix sponsa x Lophodytes cucullatus)


Wood Duck x Bufflehead (Aix sponsa x Bucephala albeola)

Bird Hybrids

Wood x Falcated Duck (Aix sponsa x Mareca falcata)

Photo (https://harteman.nl/hybrids)

Wood Duck x Marbled Teal (Aix sponsa x Marmaronetta angustirostris)

Photos and Info

Wood x Red-billed Duck (Aix sponsa x Anas erythrorhyncha)

Photos and Info

Brazilian Teal x White-cheeked Pintail (Amazonetta brasiliensis x Anas bahamensis)


Baikal Teal x Northern Pintail (Sibirionetta formosa x Anas acuta)


Baikal x Green-winged Teal (Sibirionetta formosa x Anas crecca)

Bird Hybrids
iNat Obs
https://macaulaylibrary.org/asset/81259141 (Mis-labeled as Baikal Teal x Northern Pintail)

Baikal Teal x Eurasian Wigeon (Sibirionetta formosa x Mareca penelope)

Photos and Info
Photo (http://cambsbirdclub.blogspot.com/2011/01/)

Baikal Teal x Falcated Duck (Sibirionetta formosa x Mareca falcata)

Bird Hybrids

Garganey x Northern Shoveler (Spatula querquedula x clypeata)

Bird Hybrids
Photo (page 167)

Garganey x Cinnamon Teal (Spatula querquedula x cyanoptera)

Photo (page 168)

Garganey x Red Shoveler (Spatula querquedula x platalea)

Photo (page 169)

Garganey x Green-winged Teal (Spatula querquedula x Anas crecca)

Research Paper & Photos

Blue-winged x Cinnamon Teal (Spatula discors x cyanoptera)

Bird Hybrids

Blue-winged Teal x Northern Shoveler (Spatula discors x clypeata)

Bird Hybrids
See this post for how to separate this hybrid from Cinnamon Teal x Northern Shoveler.

Cinnamon Teal x Northern Shoveler (Spatula cyanoptera x clypeata)

Bird Hybrids
See this post for how to separate this hybrid from Blue-winged Teal x Northern Shoveler.

Blue-winged Teal x Gadwall (Spatula discors x Mareca strepera)

iNat Obs

Blue-winged x Green-winged Teal (Spatula discors x Anas crecca)

Bird Hybrids

Cinnamon x Green-winged Teal (Spatula cyanoptera x Anas crecca)

Bird Hybrids

Red Shoveler x Ferruginous Duck (Spatula platalea x Aythya nyroca)

Possible Individual

Northern Shoveler x Gadwall (Spatula clypeata x Mareca strepera)

Bird Hybrids
On left in flight.
Wing Comparison
Top: Gadwall, Bottom: Northern Shoveler, Middle: Hybrids (http://hybridduck.blogspot.com/p/hybrid-gallery.html)

Northern Shoveler x Eurasian Wigeon (Spatula clypeata x Mareca penelope)

Bird Hybrids

Northern Shoveler x American Wigeon (Spatula clypeata x Mareca americana)

Bird Hybrids

Northern Shoveler x Mallard (Spatula clypeata x Anas platyrhynchos)

Bird Hybrids

Gadwall x Falcated Duck (Mareca strepera x falcata)


Gadwall x Eurasian Wigeon (Mareca strepera x penelope)

Bird Hybrids

Gadwall x American Wigeon (Mareca strepera x americana)

Bird Hybrids
Wing Comparison
Top: Gadwall, Bottom: American Wigeon, Middle: Hybrid (http://hybridduck.blogspot.com/p/hybrid-gallery.html)

Gadwall x Mallard (Mareca strepera x Anas platyrhynchos)

Other names: Brewer's Duck, Bemaculated/Bimaculated Duck, Bemaculated/Bimaculated Teal, Anas glocitans
Bird Hybrids

Gadwall x Northern Pintail (Mareca strepera x Anas acuta)

Bird Hybrids

Gadwall x Green-winged Teal (Mareca strepera x Anas crecca)


Northern Shoveler x Green-winged Teal (Spatula clypeata x Anas crecca)

Note: Similar to NSHO x GADW

Falcated Duck x Eurasian Wigeon (Mareca falcata x penelope)

Bird Hybrids
Photo (Sleeping in the center)

Crested Duck x Chiloe Wigeon (Lophonetta specularioides x Mareca sibilatrix)


Eurasian x American Wigeon (Mareca penelope x americana)

Bird Hybrids

Eurasian x Chiloe Wigeon (Mareca penelope x sibilatrix)

Bird Hybrids

Eurasian Wigeon x Mallard (Mareca penelope x Anas platyrhynchos)

Bird Hybrids

Eurasian Wigeon x Northern Pintail (Mareca penelope x Anas acuta)

Bird Hybrids

Eurasian Wigeon x Green-winged Teal (Mareca penelope x Anas crecca)

NOTE: Difficult to distinguish from AMWI x GWTE. Wigeon parent tends to be assumed based on range.
Bird Hybrids

American x Chiloe Wigeon (Mareca americana x sibilatrix)

Bird Hybrids

American Wigeon x Mallard (Mareca americana x Anas platyrhynchos)

Bird Hybrids

American Wigeon x American Black Duck (Mareca americana x Anas rubripes)


American Wigeon x Northern Pintail (Mareca americana x Anas acuta)

Note bill size and color for differences from GADW x NOPI

American Wigeon x Green-winged Teal (Mareca americana x Anas crecca)

Bird Hybrids

American Wigeon x Redhead (Mareca americana x Aythya americana)

Bird Hybrids

Chiloe Wigeon x Cape Teal (Mareca sibilatrix x Anas capensis)

Bird Hybrids

Chiloe Wigeon x Mallard (Mareca sibilatrix x Anas platyrhynchos)


Chiloe Wigeon x Philippine Duck (Mareca sibilatrix x Anas luzonica)

Photos and Info

African Black x Muscovy Duck (Anas sparsa x Cairina moschata)

Photos (with African Black Ducks)

African Black Duck x Mallard (Anas sparsa x platyrhynchos)


Yellow-billed Duck x Mallard (Anas undulata x platyrhynchos)

Bird Hybrids

Yellow-billed x Indian Spot-billed Duck (Anas undulata x poecilorhyncha)

Bird Hybrids

Pacific Black Duck x Gray Teal (Anas superciliosa x gracilis)


Pacific Black Duck x Chestnut Teal (Anas superciliosa x castanea)


Pacific Black Duck x Mallard (Anas superciliosa x platyrhynchos)


Laysan Duck x Mallard (Anas laysanensis x platyrhynchos)

Bird Hybrids

Hawaiian Duck x Mallard (Anas wyvilliana x platyrhynchos)

Bird Hybrids

Indian Spot-billed Duck x Mallard (Anas poecilorhyncha x platyrhynchos)

Bird Hybrids

Eastern Spot-billed Duck x Mallard (Anas zonorhyncha x platyrhynchos)


Mallard x Mexican Duck (Anas platyrhynchos x diazi)

Bird Hybrids
Beware: Male Mallards in eclipse plumage
Research Paper

Mallard x American Black Duck (Anas platyrhynchos x rubripes)

Other names: Blallard
Bird Hybrids

NOTE: Pure American Black Ducks frequently show a slight green iridescence on part of their head (like this bird). Hybrids tend to show a significant amount of green. The presence of just a small amount does not necessarily indicate Mallard involvement.

Pure American Black Ducks frequently show a thin white border to the posterior edge of the speculum (like this bird). The presence of white in this area does not necessarily indicate Mallard involvement. Hybrids tend to show a more extensive white posterior border to the speculum. Hybrids also tend to show a white anterior border to the speculum.

Female pure Mallards frequently show an olive-colored bill (like this bird). Greenish bill coloration on the bill does not necessarily indicate American Black Duck involvement.

Pure American Black Ducks don’t tend to show truly white tail feathers, however edges of worn feathers can appear lighter than normal.

Beware: Male Mallards in eclipse plumage (as well as other molts/odd plumages) can get easily mistaken for this hybrid.

Mallard x Mottled Duck (Anas platyrhynchos x fulvigula)

Other names: Muddled Duck
Bird Hybrids
ID Article
Beware: Male Mallards in eclipse plumage (as well as other molts/odd plumages) can get easily mistaken for this hybrid.

Mexican x Mottled Duck (Anas diazi x fulvigula)


Mallard x White-cheeked Pintail (Anas platyrhynchos x bahamensis)


Mallard x Northern Pintail (Anas platyrhynchos x acuta)

Bird Hybrids
https://macaulaylibrary.org/asset/277738581 (likely domestic Mallard x Northern Pintail)
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/105072702 (likely not F1. Probably backcrossed with Mallard)
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/101484571 (domestic Mallard x Northern Pintail)
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104540727 (domestic Mallard x Northern Pintail)

Mallard x Green-winged Teal (Anas platyrhynchos x crecca)

Bird Hybrids (Eurasian)
Bird Hybrids (American)

Mallard x Brown Teal (Anas platyrhynchos x chlorotis)

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/59639989 (Male. Female is pure)

Mallard x Redhead (Anas platyrhynchos x Aythya americana)



Mallard x Ring-necked Duck (Anas platyrhynchos x Aythya collaris)


Mallard x Tufted Duck (Anas platyrhynchos x Aythya fuligula)

Bird Hybrids

Mallard x Ferruginous Duck (Anas platyrhynchos x Aythya nyroca)


Mallard x Rosy-billed Pochard (Anas platyrhynchos x Netta peposaca)


Mallard x Red-crested Pochard (Anas platyrhynchos x Netta rufina)

Bird Hybrids

Mallard x Common Eider (Anas platyrhynchos x Somateria mollissima)

Bird Hybrids

Cape Teal x White-cheeked Pintail (Anas capensis x bahamensis)

Bird Hybrids

White-cheeked x Yellow-billed Pintail (Anas bahamensis x georgica)

See also White-cheeked Pintail x Yellow-billed Teal

Cape x Yellow-billed Teal (Anas capensis x flavirostris)


White-cheeked Pintail x Yellow-billed Teal (Anas bahamensis x flavirostris)

Bird Hybrids
Also see White-cheeked x Yellow-billed Pintail

White-cheeked Pintail x Rosy-billed Pochard (Anas bahamensis x Netta peposaca)

Discussion Regarding ID of this individual

Northern Pintail x Green-winged Teal (Anas acuta x crecca)


Northern Pintail x Red-crested Pochard (Anas acuta x Netta rufina)

Bird Hybrids

Northern Pintail x Common Pochard (Anas acuta x Aythya ferina)

Bird Hybrids

Northern Pintail x Tufted Duck (Anas acuta x Aythya fuligula)

Bird Hybrids

Yellow-billed Teal x Ferruginous Duck (Anas flavirostris x Aythya nyroca)

Bird Hybrids

Gray x Chestnut Teal (Anas gracilis x castanea)

There are some presumed hybrids on Macaulay Library based on what seem to be the parents nearby, but the hybrids in question seem to appear phenotypically identical to Gray Teal to my eye. Could the Chestnut Teal not be a biological parent? I don’t know enough about this to suggest anything myself so one can come to their own conclusions.

Brazilian x Gray Teal (Amazonetta brasiliensis x Anas gracilis)

Photos and Info

Gray Teal x Hardhead (Anas gracilis x Aythya australis)


Red-crested x Rosy-billed Pochard (Netta rufina x peposaca)

Bird Hybrids
Photos (page 21)

Red-crested x Common Pochard (Netta rufina x Aythya ferina)

Bird Hybrids

Red-crested Pochard x Ferruginous Duck (Netta rufina x Aythya nyroca)

Bird Hybrids

Red-crested Pochard x Tufted Duck (Netta rufina x Aythya fuligula)

Bird Hybrids
https://macaulaylibrary.org/asset/398358231 (center, with dark belly)

Rosy-billed x Common Pochard (Netta peposaca x Aythya ferina)

Bird Hybrids

Canvasback x Redhead (Aythya valisineria x americana)

Bird Hybrids
https://macaulaylibrary.org/asset/132866381 (center. comparison with both parent species)

Redhead x Ring-necked Duck (Aythya americana x collaris)

Bird Hybrids

Canvasback x Common Pochard (Aythya valisineria x ferina)

Bird Hybrids

Canvasback x Ring-necked Duck (Aythya valisineria x collaris)


Redhead x Greater Scaup (Aythya americana x marila)

Photos (captive individuals of confirmed parentage)
Photos (captive individuals of confirmed parentage)
NOTE: Extremely difficult to separate from REDH x LESC.

Redhead x Lesser Scaup (Aythya americana x affinis)

NOTE: Extremely difficult to separate from REDH x GRSC.

Common Pochard x Ferruginous Duck (Aythya ferina x nyroca)

Bird Hybrids

Common Pochard x Tufted Duck (Aythya ferina x fuligula)

Bird Hybrids

Ring-necked x Ferruginous Duck (Aythya collaris x nyroca)

Bird Hybrids

Ring-necked x Tufted Duck (Aythya collaris x fuligula)

Bird Hybrids

Ring-necked Duck x Greater Scaup (Aythya collaris x marila)

NOTE: Extremely difficult to separate from RNDU x LESC.

Ring-necked Duck x Lesser Scaup (Aythya collaris x affinis)

Bird Hybrids
https://macaulaylibrary.org/asset/57709511 (left)
https://macaulaylibrary.org/asset/57709501 (left)
NOTE: Extremely difficult to separate from RNDU x GRSC.

Ferruginous Duck x Baer’s Pochard (Aythya nyroca x baeri)


Ferruginous x Tufted Duck (Aythya nyroca x fuligula)

Bird Hybrids

Ferruginous Duck x Greater Scaup (Aythya nyroca x marila)

Bird Hybrids

Tufted Duck x Greater Scaup (Aythya fuligula x marila)

Bird Hybrids
NOTE: Extremely difficult to separate from TUDU x LESC.

Tufted Duck x Lesser Scaup (Aythya fuligula x affinis)


New Zealand x Lesser Scaup (Aythya novaeseelandiae x affinis)

Photo (https://harteman.nl/hybrids)

Steller’s x Common Eider (Polysticta stelleri x Somateria mollissima)


Spectacled x King Eider (Somateria fischeri x spectabilis)

Photo (https://harteman.nl/hybrids)
Photo (https://harteman.nl/hybrids)

Spectacled Eider x Velvet Scoter (Somateria fischeri x Melanitta fusca)


King x Common Eider (Somateria spectabilis x mollissima)


Common Eider x Common Merganser (Somateria mollissima x Mergus merganser)

Other names: Gooder
Photos and info (page 155)

Surf x White-winged Scoter (Melanitta perspicillata x deglandi)


Velvet x White-winged Scoter (Melanitta fusca x deglandi)

Photo (Top: VESC, Middle: Probable VESC x WWSC, Bottom: WWSC)
More info and photos

Velvet x Stejneger’s Scoter (Melanitta fusca x stejnegeri)

More info and photos

Bufflehead x Common Goldeneye (Bucephala albeola x clangula)

Other names: Buffle-eye
Bird Hybrids

Bufflehead x Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala albeola x islandica)

Note the more extensive black “piano keys” on the flanks when compared to BUFF x COGO, as well as the head shape more closely resembling BAGO than COGO. Note also the differing pattern of white on the face when compared to most BUFF x COGO.

Bufflehead x Hooded Merganser (Bucephala albeola x Lophodytes cucullatus)

Bird Hybrids

Common x Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula x islandica)

Bird Hybrids

Common Goldeneye x Smew (Bucephala clangula x Mergellus albellus)

Other names: Goldensmew
Bird Hybrids


Common Goldeneye x Hooded Merganser (Bucephala clangula x Lophodytes cucullatus)

Bird Hybrids

Barrow’s Goldeneye x Hooded Merganser (Bucephala islandica x Lophodytes cucullatus)

Bird Hybrids

Smew x Hooded Merganser (Mergellus albellus x Lophodytes cucullatus)

Bird Hybrids

Smew x Red-breasted Merganser (Mergellus albellus x Mergus serrator)


Hooded x Common Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus x Mergus merganser)


Ruddy x White-headed Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis x leucocephala)

Photo (https://harteman.nl/hybrids)

Mandarin x Laysan Duck (Aix galericulata x Anas laysanensis)

This seems to be the most credible evidence for any hybrid involving Mandarin Duck. All other alleged Mandarin Duck hybrids that I've come across either don't have any credible evidence or, in the case of Mandarin x Wood Ducks, are just eclipse plumage male Mandarin Ducks. No other Mandarin Duck hybrids in the paper below seem to actually be Mandarin Duck hybrids.
Research Paper

Comb Duck x Rosy-billed Pochard (Sarkidiornis sylvicola x Netta peposaca)


Knob-billed Duck x Mallard (Sarkidiornis melanotos x Anas platyrhynchos)

Photos - See the description on this photo for more information. Yellow-billed Duck is not certainly ruled out for the other parent but I thought I should include this regardless.

Snow x Bar-headed x Swan Goose (Anser caerulescens x indicus x cygnoides)

This bird certainly has all three species in it. If I understand correctly, it is likely ((Snow x Bar-headed Goose) x Swan Goose) x (Snow x Bar-headed Goose). In other words: 37.5% Snow Goose, 37.5% Bar-headed Goose, and 25% Swan Goose.

Yellow-billed Duck x Red-crested Pochard (Anas undulata x Netta rufina )

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/129444264 (left)

Mallard x Common Pochard (Anas platyrhynchos x Aythya ferina)


Snow x Graylag Goose (Anser caerulescens x anser)

Posted on January 20, 2023 03:27 AM by liliumtbn liliumtbn | 2 comments | Leave a comment

November 18, 2022

Separating Male Blue-winged Teal x Northern Shoveler and Cinnamon Teal x Northern Shoveler Hybrids

Blue-winged Teal x Northern Shoveler (BWTE x NSHO) and Cinnamon Teal x Northern Shoveler (CITE x NSHO) are two hybrid taxa that are frequently confused with each other. Blue-winged x Cinnamon Teal is another somewhat similar hybrid but they're easy enough to separate from these other two hybrids so I will not be discussing them here.

Beware of staining! Some birds can be stained a rusty color from the water or environment that they exist in. This can make a few of the below field marks more challenging to determine.

Note: Remember to use more than one field mark to identify an individual. It is especially important with hybrids to not use one odd-looking feature to rule something out completely.

The breast of BWTE x NSHO is paler overall than that of CITE x NSHO. The main color is a pale off-white to a pale buffy/orangey. The breast of BWTE x NSHO is covered in dark, well-defined speckling and patterning.

The breast of CITE x NSHO is a darker and richer orange/cinnamon coloration overall. The main color is a pale cinnamon to a rich dark orange, contrasting less with the flanks than that of BWTE x NSHO. The breast of CITE x NSHO is often covered with less-defined and more messy dark patterning/speckling, but is frequently nearly completely patternless and monochrome in color. Compare a few individuals below.

The flanks of BWTE x NSHO are often paler and not quite as rich of a cinnamon coloration as CITE x NSHO. BWTE x NSHO flanks are also often covered in well-defined black speckling and patterning. The flanks also often obviously contrast heavily with the pale breast.

The flanks of CITE x NSHO are often darker and richer cinnamon in coloration. The flanks seem to be almost completely patternless in most cases, with the occasional small amount of speckles or stripes visible, but never as extensive or obvious as on BWTE x NSHO. Compare some individuals below.

Hip Patch
The hip patch of BWTE x NSHO is white. It usually lacks any rusty coloration unless it's stained.

The hip patch of CITE x NSHO is anywhere from white to cinnamon, but it frequently has at least some cinnamon wash on it. Compare some individuals below.

Cheek Patch
Oftentimes people will use the fact that a given individual has a white crescent at the base of its bill to suggest that Blue-winged Teal has to be involved. This is not the case. Both BWTE x NSHO and CITE x NSHO have this white crescent. In fact, BWTE x NSHO seem to frequently show a smaller white crescent oveall than CITE x NSHO do. This difference is from personal observation but it seems to hold up well in most individuals. BWTE x NSHO often show a very thin white "crescent" that appears as just a slightly curved white bar in some individuals while CITE x NSHO often show a thicker white crescent that covers more of the face. Compare the two individuals below, but as with all hybrids (and species to a lesser extent) there's plenty of variation.

Scapular Coloration
The scapulars on both hybrids have black patterning, but the main color of those of BWTE x NSHO is a pale buffy coloration similar to the breast.

The main color of CITE x NSHO scapulars is a darker cinnamon, also similar to the breast. Compare Below.

Head Coloration
The head coloration and iridescence of BWTE x NSHO tends to be slightly duller, grayer, and more in-line with BWTE. The head coloration and iridescence of CITE x NSHO tends to be brighter green and more in-line with NSHO. This feature doesn't seem entirely reliable, but it helps to give an impression of one or the other.

Posted on November 18, 2022 07:10 PM by liliumtbn liliumtbn | 1 comment | Leave a comment

September 03, 2022

The Vole and Its Island - Birding For Nick Tepper

In January of 2019 I learned that this vole existed. A small Microtus completely isolated on a tiny Island west of Nantucket. I was compiling a list of species endemic to my home state of Massachusetts at the time, and was inquiring to my friend Skyler about a spider that was discovered on Nantucket. I told him about the list I was creating and he replied "U got muskeget vole right?" That was it. Those few words marked the start of my obsession. It is Massachusetts' only endemic vertebrate species and it was one that I had to see alive in person.

Muskeget is a unique island with a long and complicated history. I couldn't possibly squeeze it all into a journal post about the island's endemic vole but some background is important for those unfamiliar with Muskeget. The island is tiny, only about 240 acres, and it's completely uninhabited. One building exists on the island; a shack owned by Crocker Snow Jr. Aside from Crocker's shack there's what is left of an old duck blind, a pile of rubble that was once another shack, and a portion of land that one may be able to call an airstrip if you go back some years and squint hard enough. That is to say it's more or less untouched by humans. Fishermen and travelers occasionally wander the shores but unless someone is visiting for a specific purpose every once in a while, the island is empty. For those interested in learning more about the history of Muskeget and its vole this journal post discusses that aspect more in depth.

After learning about the vole from Skyler I began scouring the internet searching for any information I could find on it. Microtus breweri the Muskeget Vole, a small vole only known to occur on Muskeget Island, Massachusetts. At the time no photos of a living individual existed online (none that I could track down anyway) and the only photo of a living vole that I could find was a black and white photograph in Crocker Snow Jr.'s book about Muskeget. It became my mission to photograph this species and I would try to get out to Muskeget to search at any opportunity I could. I attended Tuckernuck Christmas Bird Counts and hoped that we might pop over to Muskeget for a few hours so I could search for the vole but that never ended up happening.
One day in September of 2020 my chance to visit Muskeget came. Skyler had found a rare Gray Heron on Tuckernuck Island and then relocated it on Muskeget Island. This was the first record for this species in the lower 48 states so naturally a small boat with some Nantucket birders was scheduled to go out the next morning. I was informed late that evening that Skyler had saved a spot for me on that boat, so if I could make it to Nantucket the next morning I would have a ride to Muskeget Island. Luckily I was able to make it down there in time for the boat. Unfortunately the Gray Heron had moved on and it was never seen in the area again. We got to spend some extra time on Muskeget and searched extensively for the voles. I even army-crawled under Crocker's cabin and flipped some boards hoping to find one, but to no avail. The Muskeget Vole continued to illude me. That trip was extremely special regardless of our failures to find the two targets of the day. I was finally able to experience Muskeget Island and now I was even more under its spell.

In the years following my trip to Muskeget I spent some more time on Tuckernuck and learned more about the Muskeget Vole. Apparently the last published sighting of one was in the 1990s. Beyond that, sightings were based on word of mouth with no photos or evidence that they were credible. We began to get worried that M. breweri was extinct. The only other terrestrial mammal on the island is Peromyscus so were people mistaking those for voles and claiming to have seen some while on Muskeget? In recent years the Great Black-backed Gull breeding population has increased on Muskeget, and tularemia and other tick-borne diseases have been reported nearby. Did these factors in combination with climate change and erosion of Muskeget do the voles in? Tularemia has been known to "burn through vole populations like wildfire" and it has been detected on Martha's Vineyard and Tuckernuck Island very recently. Had the Muskeget Vole silently gone extinct, alone on the island after thousands of years of trials and tribulations? Soon myself, Skyler Kardell, and Nick Tepper made it our goal to get out to Muskeget and do a general presence/absence survey of the voles. At the time we weren't sure if we would be declaring them extinct or documenting the few that we did find but it wasn't looking good.
The process of figuring this all out was long and complicated, but to make a long story short Skyler and I made our way to Harvard to discuss a trip out to Muskeget. We figured out our plan and learned that specimens of Muskeget Vole were obtained in 2015 but that work was unpublished, making the last confirmed sighting much more recent than we'd previously thought. Our hopes for seeing this species began to rise once again, and it seemed like my dream of photographing a Muskeget Vole may finally come true.

Nick Tepper applied for a permit to trap and collect (we would only collect if the population seemed high enough) M. breweri with myself and Skyler as subpermitees since Nick has the most experience with small mammal research. If we collected any the specimens would be donated to the Harvard collections for DNA work in the future. After some waiting we finally heard back from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife in June of 2022. We got permission to trap and collect on Muskeget Island! I was on Tuckernuck with Skyler doing some research on Black-capped Chickadees when I found out and Nick was in Kansas doing breeding bird surveys. The next step was actually planning our trip to Muskeget now that all the permissions were in order, but first we all celebrated being granted permission to do this population assessment in the first place.

What happened next is hard to fit into a story about following my dream to search for a rare vole but it certainly can't be told otherwise. A few days after celebrating obtaining the permit with Nick he was in a major car accident and suffered a traumatic brain injury. The news obviously shocked me and others that know him, and it's something that I'm still processing. As of writing this Nick is on the long road to recovery.
Skyler and I decided to proceed without Nick for the time being. The permit expired at the end of 2022 and we knew he wouldn't be able to join us before then. Nick especially had worked so hard to obtain the permit and it felt like a disservice if we didn't use it, even if it would be without him.

Time passed and we continued planning our trip. Eventually we made it out to Muskeget in late August of 2022. We stayed on the island for 4 nights and the two of us extensively trapped all 4 corners of the island. We caught voles in all 4 areas and found enough to collect a few specimens for Harvard. Finally, my dream of nearly four years had come true, I'd seen and photographed the Muskeget Vole; Massachusetts' only endemic vertebrate. A lot of my time on Muskeget is a blur. It was filled with so many exciting moments including the voles and observing some amazing shorebird flocks in the lagoon, but it was extremely bittersweet. Nick should have been there. I wish he had been.

In Honor of Nick we will be doing a Birdathon to raise money for Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge. It's explained much better in the GoFundMe so please go read that. If you're able to I encourage you to donate. Nick is an amazing person and I wouldn't have had the opportunity to fulfill my dream of seeing the Muskeget Vole without him.

Posted on September 03, 2022 03:01 PM by liliumtbn liliumtbn | 1 observation | 2 comments | Leave a comment

June 08, 2022

A Millipede Mystery

For such a small island, Tuckernuck has a disproportionately large number of mysteries. From the ghostly tales and warnings of the Yoho to the altogether unique song-type of the Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) found on Tuckernuck Island, there are countless stories and observations to get one searching for answers. My friend Skyler and I were on Tuckernuck researching the latter of the two aforementioned mysteries but stumbled across the answer, or perhaps part of the answer, to an entirely different mystery.

First of all some background is required. Part of this millipede mystery is why there are Giant Millipedes (Complex Narceus americanus) on Tuckernuck at all. The soil on the island is very sandy if you can even call most of it soil at all. The vegetation is very short due to the exposed nature of Tuckernuck, and the forest floor is mostly dry with leaf litter only where trees are most dense. This is noticeably different to the Giant Millipede's usual habitat of more humid old growth forest with extensive decomposing matter on the ground. The habitat on Tuckernuck just shouldn't support these millipedes from what is currently known about them, and it shows; Complex Narceus americanus has never been recorded on Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, or even Nantucket Island. They are completely isolated on Tuckernuck Island (Update: A population has been discovered on Coatue, Nantucket on June 17th, 2022). However, this isn't even the strangest part. Every spring and summer, countless millipedes are found headless along the trails and beaches of Tuckernuck Island. Some are further broken apart but the freshest ones are found only with their heads missing. This phenomenon occurring with Complex Narceus americanus has only been documented from a few places (including upstate New York) and has been a popular ecological mystery of Tuckernuck since at least the 1940s (Mckenna-Foster, Beaton, & Millman). American Giant Millipedes can release a harmful fluid that can cause burns (Wikipedia, 2022), so presumably the head is the only safe piece of the animal to consume. Clearly something on Tuckernuck has figured this out. A team funded by the Nantucket Biodiversity Initiative went to Tuckernuck in 2009 in an attempt to solve this mystery. They collected some very important data and information, but were not successful in finding the culprit to these decapitations. And that's how it stayed. A complete mystery. While many islanders and researchers had their theories about what was causing this phenomenon, no one was sure. Small mammals or birds were the main suggestions, and until June 7th, 2022, suggestions were all they were.

Skyler and I had planned to have 4 mornings of recording Black-capped Chickadee song on Tuckernuck Island, but days 3 and 4 were to be interrupted by winds, rain, and thunder sent North by a storm from the Bahamas. While it wouldn't technically be a tropical storm by the time the weather reached us, it was looking more and more like we wouldn't be able to record at all on our final 2 days. In the evening of day 2, we decided to try and get back onto Nantucket Island before the storm hit. We wanted to make sure we could get off Tuckernuck in time, and we wouldn't have been able to obtain any more recordings the next couple of days. Skyler attempted to call our ride off of Tuckernuck but to no avail, so he quickly began making his way to North Head to return a pot that needed to be returned before we left. Meanwhile our ride off island, Mark, tried calling Skyler. This was unsuccessful due to the poor signal on parts of the island, so Mark drove to the field station where we were staying. Eventually Skyler made his way back and I had packed up most of our stuff in order to leave as soon as possible, but there was still some of Skyler's belongings that he needed to pack before we hopped in Mark's truck and headed to the boat. Skyler climbed up to the loft and began packing up. After a couple minutes he looked out the small loft window and saw it; something was thrashing a millipede around beneath the bird feeders. That something was a Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula). He immediately yelled "Lily! Look out back a grackle is attacking a millipede!" While barely processing what he said, I ran to grab my camera and exited the field station in a rush of adrenaline. The door slammed behind me and all the birds flew off of the feeders, particularly a Common Grackle flew off of the ground and into a nearby shrub. I quickly tried snapping some photos but it flew slightly further back onto a higher branch. This is where I was finally able to obtain photographs. I watched as the grackle cleaned its bill by rubbing it against the branch, and a few drops of some type of liquid dripped off the end of its bill. Skyler followed me outside shortly after and we ran over to investigate the area on the ground where the grackle had been. We made our way over to the bird feeders and there it was, a sight Tuckernuckers are all too familiar with. Right on the ground beneath the feeders exactly where the grackle had been; one giant millipede but missing a very important feature: its head. The body was still wriggling slowly as Skyler picked it up, and the legs were moving as they often do for a while after the decapitations occur. With literally minutes to spare on Tuckernuck, we'd solved it, or so we thought. We loaded up the final bags and hopped in the back of Mark's pickup truck as he drove off towards his boat.

On our way back we began thinking. How could Common Grackles be the only culprit to these decapitations? Tuckernuck is a small island and the fauna is very different from the mainland. Common Grackles are present but not extremely abundant on island. Excepting large flyover migrant flocks, there typically isn't more than a few dozen grackles on Tuckernuck at a time. Would these be enough to account for the hundreds of headless millipedes that are scattered throughout the island every year? Since neither of us observed the grackle actively consuming a portion of the millipede, what if it was already decapitated and the grackle just tossed it around and then cleaned its bill after eating some nearby bird seed? While this explanation seems unlikely it can't be completely discounted as we didn't directly observe it consuming the head of the millipede. Why is this phenomenon limited to a few specific locations involving this millipede complex? Is the benefit that great for grackles to be eating just a tiny portion of each animal? It also still remains to be seen why the millipedes are so hyper-abundant on Tuckernuck in the first place. Could these millipedes represent a unique species? Perhaps DNA testing could help to understand this aspect. And if it's not just grackles, what other species are decapitating the millipedes of Tuckernuck Island? Our findings add a large piece to this puzzle, but don't completely solve all aspects of the millipede mystery of Tuckernuck Island. Maybe Tuckernuck will hold on to this mystery for as long as it can, as it tends to do. Maybe we'll never know the full picture. But the allure is in the questions and mysteries, and that's part of what makes this island so special.

Until next time, Tuckernuck.

Mckenna-Foster, A., Beaton, C., Millman, L. (2009). An Investigation into headless millipedes on Tuckernuck Island, MA. DOI

Wikipedia. 2022. “Narceus americanus.” Last modified December 8, 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narceus_americanus.

Posted on June 08, 2022 02:06 PM by liliumtbn liliumtbn | 2 observations | 2 comments | Leave a comment

March 24, 2022

History of The Muskeget Vole

(Miller, 1896).

1856 - July: Specimens collected by Dr. T. M. Brewer
In July of 1856 six specimens were collected from Muskeget Island by Dr. T. M. Brewer (Lyon & Osgood, 1909). This is the earliest report I could find of Microtus breweri and seems to be the first documented occurrence of this species.

1857: First description of Microtus breweri
In 1857 was described by Spencer Fullerton Baird as "Gray Mouse (Arvicola breweri)" on page 525 of volume 8 of Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. (Department., U. S. W., 1857). There are several resources online that list the original description of this species as being from 1858, but I can find nothing that supports this, and the original description is clearly dated as 1857.

~1885-1888: The Muskeget Life Saving Station burns
It's very unclear when the fire in the Muskeget Life Saving Station happened but from what I can find it should be anywhere from 1885 to 1888, give or take. The fire happened "a few years before" 1890-1891 (Miller, 1896). This is said to be the cause of the introduction of cats to Muskeget. Supposedly this fire allowed them to escape onto the island and decimate the population of M. breweri. A few secondary sources seem to claim that the fire happened in 1894 but this doesn't line up with Miller (1896).

1887- June 1890: South Point Island
At some point between 1887 and June 1890, South Point was disconnected from Muskeget Island to form South Point Island due to the shifting sands and ocean currents. South Point went from the shape of the dotted lines in the image at the top of this page to the island labeled as "SOUTH PT ID." When the US coastguard surveyed Muskeget in 1887 South Point was still connected to Muskeget. We know that South Point Island was no longer connected by June 25th of 1890 due to a letter written from F. H. Kennard to Gerrit S. Miller describing his and Dr. C. S. Francis' visit to Muskeget from June 25th-29th of 1890. In this letter, Kennard refers to South Point as "South Point Id." and Muskeget as "Muskeget proper." A population of M. breweri remained on South Point and Adams Islands, but were apparently never present on Gravelly Island (Miller, 1896).

Jun 25-29, 1890: The "last" sighting
On June 25th-29th F. H. Kennard and Dr. C. S. Francis visited Muskeget Island and reported seeing M. breweri on the island. "While we saw numbers of them on South Point Id., we did see a very few in the middle of Muskeget... We noticed and marked the difference in the number of mice on South Point Island and on Muskeget and laid it to the cats," (Miller, 1896).

Jun 30, 1890-1891: Extirpation from Muskeget Proper
John R. Sandsbury, the island caretaker at the time, reported that M. breweri disappeared from Muskeget Island some time from 1890-1891. The sighting from June 1890 was the last reported sighting of the species on Muskeget proper at this time (Miller, 1896).

Jul, 1892: M. breweri confirmed to be absent from Muskeget Island
In July of 1892 a careful search of Muskeget was conducted and no trace of M. breweri was found on the island. At the same time, South Point and Adams Islands were reported to have thriving colonies of this species (Miller, 1896).

Dec 28, 1892: Declining on Adams Island
On December 28th, 1892 Miller visited the islands and reported that M. breweri was "...as numerous as before on South Point Island, but the colony on Adams Island had greatly diminished," (Miller, 1896).

Jun 21, 1893: Extirpation from Adams Island and re-introduction to Muskeget proper
In June of 1893 Gerrit S. Miller, Outram Bangs, and Chas F. Batchelder visited Muskeget. "We found that the Microtus colony on Adams Island had entirely disappeared. On South Point Island, however, the mice were so abundant that in less than two hours we caught forty-three. After selecting as many as we wanted for specimens, we turned out twenty-six on Muskeget," (Miller, 1896). At some point prior to the re-introduction of M. breweri to Muskeget, cats were extirpated from the island. I'm not able to find a date for this.
"Of the forty-three taken on June 21, 1893, no less than nineteen were slightly albinistic. Each of these abnormal individuals showed a distinct white patch or tuft on the median line of the head just back of the eyes. Only one specimen was marked with white elsewhere on the body. In this case was a broad white stripe beginning on the lower lip and passing back under the chin and throat. It is a significant fact that in every instance the abnormal color marks were in the median line, and moreover that they occupied regions which in many mammals are normally marked with white," (Miller, 1896).

Jul, 1895: Extirpation from South Point Island and increasing population on Muskeget Island
"... Mr. W. K. Fisher collected two dozen specimens for the U. S. Department of Agriculture during July, 1895. Mr. Fisher found two colonies - both in clumps of beach plum bushes - one at the east end of the island, near the place where we liberated the mice in 1893, the other about a mile farther west. He also found that the species was extinct on South Point Island," (Miller, 1896).

Present Day
Nowadays the Muskeget Vole sits alone on Muskeget Island. South Point, Adams, and Gravelly Islands no longer exist. Thankfully the shifting tides that washed away these islands were the very reason that M. breweri was saved from extinction in the first place. Apparently many individuals on Muskeget still show a white blaze on their forehead, though I can't find evidence for this at the moment. If these individuals do exist though, they're an incredible reminder of this species' long and complicated history on an ever-changing island.

Literature Cited:

Department., U. S. W., Baird, Spencer Fullerton, Baird, Spencer Fullerton, Henry, Joseph, Ford, Thomas H., of Engineers., U. S. A. C., … T. Sinclair’s Lith. (1857). Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean (σ. 906). Ανακτήθηκε από https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/268867

Lyon, M. W. Jr., & Osgood, W. H. (1909). Catalogue of The Type-Specimens of Mammals in The United States National Museum, Including The Biological Survey Collection. Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum, 62, 82. https://books.google.com/books?id=1B1zo-e7bqoC&lpg=PA82&dq=dr%20t.%20m.%20brewer%20arvicola%20breweri&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false

Miller, G. S. Jr., (1896). The Beach Mouse of Muskeget Island. Proceedings Of The Boston Society Of Natural History, 27, 75-87. https://books.google.com/books?id=WbYrAAAAYAAJ&ots=KLdJj2Q0XE&lr&pg=PA73#v=onepage&q&f=false

Posted on March 24, 2022 05:52 PM by liliumtbn liliumtbn | 3 comments | Leave a comment

August 24, 2020

Nantucket - August 2019

Early Thursday morning Max, Michael, and I headed down to Hyannis to board the earliest ferry to Nantucket. We tried birding on the ferry, but didn't get too much apart from the occasional jellyfish in the water, although the boat was moving too fast to photograph them. When we reached land, we were greeted by Skyler and Will. Those of us who hadn't met previously shook hands and started to get to know each other. Old friends picked up where they left off.

Eventually we headed out of town towards the West side of the Island. En route to Jackson Point, we talked and listened to songs from countless different musicals, everyone just happy to be in the company of each other. When we arrived at Jackson Point, there wasn't much in terms of Passerines, so we headed out to Esther Island. There were some decent species of shorebird including Whimbrel and Western Willet. A Peregrine was also flying around looking for a meal. Some Tiger Beetles scurried along the beaches as we walked further along the island. Huge numbers of Black Tern flew around and rested on the flats. Sanderlings, Semipalmated Plovers, Piping Plovers, and other shorebirds added to the numbers. Later on, we got to the ocean-side of the beach. The waves were bigger there and a thick layer of fog could be seen. Soon after we arrived on the ocean-side, Michael shouted out "Cliff Swallows!" We all looked as quickly as possible and could spot 5 individuals darting off into the fog. I quickly snapped a photo of the last one before it too, was consumed by the fog. We rested for a few minutes near the roaring waves, and waded in a bit, enjoying the cool water as it rushed in and out.

After Esther Island, we headed North to Eel Point. There wasn't too many species of note at this location apart from the Jellies that we had to watch out for while wading through the water. On our way back to the car, the sand was extremely hot and burned our feet. There was no alternative route, so our only option was to fight through it, because it was too far to run the entire way.

A few minor stops later and we had made it to the Serengeti. Although quite far away from its African counterpart, Nantucket's "Serengeti" greatly resembles the landscape of the African Savannah, hence how it got its name. Apparently in the 1800s, the Serengeti was more or less a shortgrass prairie. It's very different in the present, with the ground covered in scrub oak and trees dotted around the area. This prairie-like habitat was perfect for Eskimo Curlew and, unfortunately, Eskimo Curlew were perfect for hunters...
We checked a large area of the Serengeti thoroughly in an attempt to locate Ring-necked Pheasants, but only found a couple of Merlin. After walking through brush for an hour and a half, we decided to take a break at Skyler's house for a while.

It was getting late in the afternoon, so we decided to head for Milestone Cranberry Bogs. We searched for rails and anything else we could find, but to no avail.

In the middle of the cranberry bogs, we talked and just had a wholesome hour or so watching the sun set together. On our walk back to the car, the calls of Helmeted Guineafowl echoed through the bog.
We got into the car and headed to a few pull-offs to listen for Barn Owl. We didn't end up hearing any, but at our last stop the sky was in clear view, and with our windows open I could look straight up at the stars. Due to light-pollution and/or a cloudy sky at most places I'd been throughout my life, I'd never payed much attention to the stars, and never got a good view. That is, until that evening. Thousands and thousands of bright stars dotted the sky, thicker in some areas than others. Something about them attracted my gaze, and I just couldn't pull my eyes away. I was staring straight up at the sky, but I was perfectly content, more content than I can ever remember being. I had just spent the day exploring this beautiful island with some amazing people, and now we were sitting in what seemed like perfect silence on the side of a road. It felt like an eternity that I stared up at those stars, but I wanted to remember that moment. It was the perfect evening to a perfect day at the end of the summer, and I didn't want to forget a second of it.

We got back to Skyler's house soon after that last stop. We said goodbye to Will since Skyler would be driving him back to where his family was staying on the island. For some reason it felt like I wouldn't see Will again, even though we'd just met that morning, and I'm sure our paths will cross again at some point. It was a bit sad because I knew our time on Nantucket was ending, and we'd be leaving early the next morning, but I was still extremely content with our time there, and happy to spend it with friends. Skyler drove Will home and Michael, Max, and I went to bed. I didn't sleep well that night but it didn't matter, as I still felt that strange indescribable tranquility.

In the morning, Skyler saw us off at the ferry. And again, for some reason, it felt like I wouldn't see him again, even though we'd definitely go birding together in the future. As the boat drove off, I stared back at Nantucket, happy to be going home, but sad to be leaving it behind. Eventually, the island disappeared into the distance, but I'm sure I'd be seeing it again soon.

Posted on August 24, 2020 06:20 PM by liliumtbn liliumtbn | 4 observations | 1 comment | Leave a comment

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