April 08, 2024

First Record of the Exotic Mollusk Ovachlamys fulgens in Rio Grande do Sul

On April 7th, I went on a trail in the local park with the aim of documenting bryophytes, a group for which I have few records and would like to study further. Branches fall from trees with various epiphytes that are commonly difficult to reach and take good photographs of, and my idea was to take advantage of these fallen branches to document the bryophytes.

I found some branches in great condition and, recognizing the species, took photographs. On the abaxial part of some leaves of Ilex paraguariensis, I found a mollusk, which I took the opportunity to document.

I did not recognize the species, and when registering it on the Inaturalist platform, the genus Ovachlamys was suggested by artificial intelligence. I used the suggestion from artificial intelligence as an initial identification. A few minutes later, Daniel Cavallari identified the specimen as Ovachlamys fulgens. I noticed that the platform listed this species as exotic to Brazil and that it was the only observation in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.

I decided to investigate if this species had already been recorded in this state and conducted a search on Google Scholar. One of the first results was a recent article on the known distribution of this species in Brazil. Rosa et al., 2022 had no evidence of this species for Rio Grande do Sul and placed the southern boundary of the species in the state of Santa Catarina.

Thus, this record becomes the first known evidence of the exotic species Ovachlamys fulgens in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

Bibliography:

Rosa, R.M.; Salvador, R.B.; Teixeira, L.; Bornschein, M.R.; Cavallari, D.C. The rapid expansion of the jumping snail Ovachlamys fulgens in Brazil. Diversity 2022, 14, 815.

Posted on April 08, 2024 07:52 PM by regisrafael regisrafael | 1 observation | 0 comments | Leave a comment

April 02, 2024

Investigating the Taxonomy and Distribution Patterns of Loxophlebia flavinigra: Insights from Historical Records and Recent Data

The species Loxophlebia flavinigra was first described by Jones, 1908 (https://archive.org/details/transactionsofen1908roya/page/144/mode/1up?view=theater) with the type locality in Castro, municipality of Paraná. Hampson, 1914 provided a drawing of the species (https://archive.org/details/catalogueoflepid12brit/page/n41/mode/2up?view=theater) along with a new description (https://archive.org/details/catalogueoflepid01brit/page/137/mode/1up?view=theater).

The main characteristics of the species include its yellow-orange coloration of the head, thorax, abdomen, and base of the forewing; black band on the vertex, interrupted at the collar and continued on the dorsal surface of the thorax and abdomen; black band on the patagia; two posterior black dots on the collar; terminal segments of the abdomen with a black stripe on the side and anterior portion of the segment, which together with the central stripe form cells of yellow-orange coloration; hyaline wings with black margins; forewing with a black spot in the discal cell.

In order to verify the geographical distribution of the species, I searched for photographs of L. flavinigra on the Inaturalist website. Observations of adults identified at least at the subfamily level Arctiinae in the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso do Sul, the Argentine province of Misiones, and Paraguay were selected.

I found 18 individuals corresponding to the species L. flavinigra in the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, and Rio de Janeiro.

All the locations where the species was found on the Inaturalist website had already been reported in the literature (Ferro et al., 2012; Nascimento et al., 2016). However, regarding the description of the species, Jones and Hampson did not describe the black stripes on the anterior portion of the terminal segments of the abdomen. Additionally, the drawing provided by Hampson shows these stripes on all segments of the abdomen, which is not the case in the first two.

Bibliography:

FERRO, V.G., RESENDE, I.M.H. & DUARTE, M. 2012. The Arctiinae moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 12(4): 166-180;

NASCIMENTO, M.S., FERRO, V.G., MONTEIRO, R.F. 2016 Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Biota Neotropica. 16(2): 1-23.

Posted on April 02, 2024 04:43 PM by regisrafael regisrafael | 0 comments | Leave a comment

April 01, 2024

Taxonomy and Geographic Distribution of Lophocampa atrimaculata: Insights from Online Databases.

Lophocampa atrimaculata was first described by Hampson, 1901 as Halisidota atrimaculata (https://archive.org/details/catalogueoflepid03brituoft/page/166/mode/1up?view=theater) along with a drawing (https://archive.org/details/catalogueoflepid13brit/page/n197/mode/2up?view=theater). The BOLDSystems website has images of museum specimens of this species from Brazil and Costa Rica (https://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/Taxbrowser_Taxonpage?taxid=381556). Another website with available images of L. atrimaculata is the fieldguide.ai (https://leps.fieldguide.ai/figures?category=59baf45f929d3d10ea8f33b5), with the only available location being the Brazilian state of São Paulo.

The species is characterized by an ocher coloration; black dots on the vertex of the head, patagia, tegula, tibia, tarsus, and forewings. The most similar species with sympatric distribution is Lophocampa modesta. L. atrimaculata has a greater number and more well-defined dots on the thorax, with one pair on the collar, one pair on the patagia, two pairs on the tegula, and two centralized dots, whereas L. modesta has only one centralized dot and a well-defined pair on the tegula, the others are absent or blurred. The forewing of L. modesta has three large black spots, on the costa in the antemedial region, on the discal cell, and near the outer margin between veins M2 and M3. In addition to these, L. atrimaculata also has a spot near the anal angle and another in the antemedial area of the posterior margin. The spot on the discal cell of L. atrimaculata does not merge with the spots on the costa.

I searched the Inaturalist website for photographs corresponding to the species Lophocampa atrimaculata. Photographs of adults identified at least in the subfamily Arctiinae in the countries of South America were selected, except for the Andean countries Ecuador and Chile and the northernmost countries.

I found 12 photographs that matched the species. Specimens were found in the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro.

Despite the original description of the species documenting its presence in Peru and Bolivia, I did not find any specimens in these countries or nearby locations. Both countries have a large database of images on the site, and therefore I believe that an identification error may have occurred in the original description, which seems to have been based on the specimen from Rio de Janeiro and a similar species occurring in Peru and Bolivia, perhaps L. modesta. Therefore, I believe it would be important to locate and analyze the individuals that originated the species description. The individuals from Costa Rica also appear to be a misidentification. The same identifier also published specimens of L. modesta in the region, which is similar but different. These individuals also deserve further study of the genitalia and genetic comparison to those found in Brazil. I believe that the individuals from Brazil are those that truly belong to this species, as they are more similar to both the description and the images provided by Hampson and later authors.

Posted on April 01, 2024 08:21 PM by regisrafael regisrafael | 0 comments | Leave a comment

March 17, 2024

Lepidoneiva erubescens: Taxonomy, Distribution and Behavior.

Lepidoneiva erubescens was first described by Butler, 1986 (https://archive.org/details/journaloflinnean121876linn/page/389/mode/1up?view=theater) as Cosmossoma erubescens. Travassos, 1940 established the genus Lepidoneiva based on this species, which then became known as Lepidoneiva erubescens. Despite this, the species was often considered a subspecies of Cosmossoma teuthras and the genus Lepidoneiva was long ignored as a valid genus (Laguerre, 2022). Laguerre, 2022 reviewed the genus using modern systematic techniques such as barcoding and dissection of the reproductive system. It was concluded that several species were distantly grouped from the other Cosmossoma species and therefore could be considered as their own genus. Among the species in this group was the taxon Cosmossoma teuthras erubescens, Michel Laguerre then recognized the validity of the genus Lepidoneiva created by Lauro Travassos. Thus, Lepidoneiva erubescens was reinstated and recognized as a different species from the now renamed Lepidoneiva teuthras.

Both Butler, 1986 and Laguerre, 2022 separate Lepidoneiva erubescens and Lepidoneiva teuthras similarly: L. erubescens is a smaller species; the red stripe on the inner margin of the forewing extends to the anal angle; L. teuthras has red scales at the base of the wing that are absent in L. erubescens. In addition to these characteristics, I noted that the dorsal part of the thorax often has a brown stripe in L. erubescens, it was not clear whether due to shedding of red scales or if they are indeed short brown scales.

With this information, I conducted a search on the Inaturalist website looking for photographs of specimens of this species. The search was restricted to adult specimens identified at least in the subfamily Arctiinae in South American countries, excluding the Andean countries and the far north.

I found 198 observations corresponding to the species L. erubescens, bringing the total observations from 98 to 217. The specimens were found in the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Bahia, Ceará, and also in the Federal District, in the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Jujuy, and in the countries Paraguay and Bolivia. Observations were most frequent between October and March, with a peak in January.

In addition to the locations found in this study, other locations also had the species recorded. Laguerre, 2022 found the species in the Argentine province of Formosa and in Peru, while Ferro, 2007 recorded the species in the Brazilian states of Pará, Tocantins, and Maranhão.

L. erubescens exhibits clustering behavior, which was photographed for the first time by Kozue Kawakami (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/189686067) and subsequently by Agnaldo Correa de Assis (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/199742549). This behavior was also documented in writing by Rogerio Dias (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/195313536) and the user agujaceratops (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/194062907). The records occurred in October, December, and February, suggesting they do not occur on a specific date. The locations were also distinct, with the phenomenon occurring in Bolivia and the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro.

Bibliography:

Ferro, Viviane Gianluppi. Diversidade de mariposas Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) do cerrado. 2007. Tese (doutorado) - Curso de ecologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, 2007.

Laguerre, M. 2022. Revision of the genus Lepidoneiva Travassos, 1940: ressurection of several species. Antenor 9 (4): 143-160.

Travassos, L. 1940. Lepidoneiva, novo gênero da família Euchromiidae (Lepidoptera). Revista de entomologia 11 (1-2): 477-487.

Posted on March 17, 2024 03:36 PM by regisrafael regisrafael | 1 comment | Leave a comment

March 16, 2024

First Identifications of Leucanopsis biedala (Lepidoptera; Erebidae) on Inaturalist.

Leucanopsis biedala is a species first described by Schaus, 1941 (https://archive.org/details/proceedingsofuni891942unit/page/502/mode/1up?view=theater) with the type locality being the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina; however, no figure was provided in the description. The BOLDSystems website has images of pinned specimens of the species. The images provided by Maurício M. Zenker are dark and difficult to observe the color patterns, while the photo provided by Benoit Vincent in 2011 appears to be a misidentification and seems to belong to the species Leucanopsis mandus. Another specimen from Benoit Vincent from 2020 has better quality and appears to be correctly identified. The website leps.fieldguide.ai has a photograph of a live specimen of the species with credits to Maria Isabel Weyermanns (https://leps.fieldguide.ai/figures?category=59baf480929d3d10ea8f39ab), the specimen matches the description of the species and also the specimens from the BOLDSystems website, but there is no information on who identified this photograph.

The species is characterized by its yellow color; a dark brown stripe centered on the dorsal side of the thorax; two brown bands on the forewing, one curved on the costa and one straight on the anal margin; fringe with dark spots where the veins end.

Based on this information, a search was made on the Inaturalist website for photos of the species. Images of specimens identified at least in the subfamily Arctiinae in the region near its known distribution area were selected.

21 photographs of Leucanopsis biedala were found distributed in the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, and Bahia, as well as in the Argentine province of Misiones.

In addition to these locations found, the species was known for the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro and Amazonas (Ferro, 2007). However, the species was not known for the province of Misiones, possibly being the first evidence of the species for the province and also for Argentina (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/177405204). Thus, Leucanopsis biedala ceases to be endemic to Brazil.

Bibliography:

Ferro, Viviane Gianluppi. Diversidade de mariposas Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) do cerrado. 2007. Tese (doutorado) - Curso de ecologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, 2007.

Posted on March 16, 2024 03:18 PM by regisrafael regisrafael | 0 comments | Leave a comment

January 10, 2024

Observation of a very rare beetle of the species Bergidora picturella (Coleoptera; Buprestidae)

One of my personal goals on Inaturalist is photograph and publish very rare taxa. For this purpose, I defined as very rare the taxa that have less than 10 observations on Inaturalist. In december 26 I did a morning walk in a rural road while photographing biodiversity. I found a beautiful beetle in flowers of Verbena rigida.

I posted the photos in the Inaturalist site and the beetle was identified as Bergidora picturella by the user fmiudo.

The species is well known for Argentina but I was incapable of find any reference of the species for Brazil.
This can be the first evidence of the species for Rio Grande do Sul state and Brazil. Bergidora picturella looks intimaly related with plants of the genus Verbena because almost all the observations in the site Inaturalist the beetle are in Verbena flowers.

Why it is rare?

Occurrence area in South America where have fewers naturalists.
Small organism, better photographed with macro lens.
Possibly small populations.

Posted on January 10, 2024 02:26 PM by regisrafael regisrafael | 1 observation | 0 comments | Leave a comment

December 05, 2023

First Identifications of Carathis australis (Lepidoptera; Erebidae) on Inaturalist.

Carathis australis was first described by Rothschild, 1909 (https://archive.org/details/ser8annalsmagazi04londuoft/page/208/mode/1up?view=theater) with type locality in the brazilian state of Santa Catarina. A plate with Carathis australis picture was also provided in 1910 (https://archive.org/details/novitateszoologi17lond/page/n607/mode/2up?view=theater). Recently, a review of the genus Carathis was published with key to species, diagnosis and pictures of museum specimens (Becker, 2011).

While conducting a search in Inaturalist site looking for Carathis byblis in the state of Paraná I found a moth with similar pattern but different from C. byblis. Investigating the genus in the site Funet.fi I found another species in the genus sympathric with C. byblis (https://ftp.funet.fi/index/Tree_of_life/insecta/lepidoptera/ditrysia/noctuoidea/arctiidae/arctiinae/carathis/). The species is Carathis australis that, based in the pictures and review paper, fully matched the observations in Inaturalist.

It was found 2 observations recognized as Carathis australis in the brazilian state of Paraná: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/177333138, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/182037714.

This was the first identifications of C. australis in Inaturalist and also the first known photographs of living specimens. By now the species is only known for the brazilian states of Santa Catarina and Paraná (Becker, 2011), but Inaturalist have potential to extend the known distribution because it's a species that can be recognized by photographs.

Bibliography:

Becker, V. O. 2011. A review of the neotropical moth genus Carathis Grote (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 20 (2): 95-97.

Posted on December 05, 2023 11:50 AM by regisrafael regisrafael | 0 comments | Leave a comment

November 09, 2023

Observation of a very rare bush of the species Miconia purpureovillosa (Myrtales; Melastomataceae).

One of my personal goals on Inaturalist is photograph and publish very rare taxa. For this purpose, I defined as very rare the taxa that have less than 10 observations on Inaturalist. In October 4 I decided explore a new trail in Ilópolis. The vegetation is characterized by Pinus elliottii, exhotic and invasive, that grew and formed an under forest with native vegetation. I found this Melastomataceae bush that I recognized as Miconia, but a species that I never saw before.

I used Flora e Funga do Brasil internet site to find the species of Miconia occuring in Rio Grande do Sul state, many of them was in the genus Leandra. A good character that I found to separate the species was anther colour, only two species have pink anther in Rio Grande do Sul, M. purpureovillosa and M. erostrata. I compared the two species in speciesLink internet site (https://specieslink.net/search/), I found that M. erostrata have a more rounded leave and is whitish underside. This was the second observation in Inaturalist identified as Miconia purpureovillosa.

The species is known to the brazilian states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Rio de Janeiro.

Why is rare?

Occurrence area in South America where have fewers naturalists.
Hard to identify and there are few botanists identifying in the area of occurrence
The bush attract little attention and live in areas of low human traffic.
Need key photos to identify.

Posted on November 09, 2023 12:31 PM by regisrafael regisrafael | 1 observation | 0 comments | Leave a comment

October 31, 2023

Observation of a very rare tree of the species Ilex brevicuspis (Aquifoliales; Aquifoliaceae).

Recently, I participated in a class of trees identification and registered lots of individuals identified by Martin Grings, a local botanist. One of the species identified was Ilex brevicuspis that was just the fourth observation identified as this species on Inaturalist site.

The species is known to the brazilian states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, and in the province of Misiones in Argentina.

Why is rare?

  • Occurrence area in South America where have fewers naturalists.
  • Ilex brevicuspis can be hard to make photographs of key characteristics like leaves, flowers and fruits because they are too high.
  • Hard to identify and there are few botanists identifying in the area of occurrence
  • The tree doesn't attract attention and live in areas of low human traffic.
Posted on October 31, 2023 11:37 AM by regisrafael regisrafael | 1 observation | 0 comments | Leave a comment

October 30, 2023

First observation of Sisyrinchium platycaule (Asparagales; Iridaceae) on Inaturalist.

Make the first observation on Inaturalist is an important event because this observation can be used later to made more identifications of the same species. The genus Sisyrinchium have around 150 described species and many of this species have very similiar morphology.

October 27 I decided make some photos, I choosed a pasture to explore for herbs and insects. I found some Sisyrinchium, I was looking for rare species and ignored Sisyrinchium micranthum. Three forms looked diferent from S. micranthum and I took shots. Later, when I upload the pictures I was convinced that one of them are S. micranthum, despite it looked diferent at field.

To identify I consulted Flora e Funga do Brasil site (https://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/PrincipalUC/PrincipalUC.do;jsessionid=F0F858585E5FCCDE8A4EFA8F22A5EB6A) and made a search selcting genus Sisyrinchium and state of Rio Grande do Sul. Most of the species have pictures and I could compare with my own photos. One of them, that I thinked was S. micranthum, matched perfectly with S. platycaule images. Compared with S. micranthum is a smaller plant with free tepals, with a different tepal color pattern.

It was the first observation on Inaturalist identified as S. platycaule. I found another of my observations that matched as S. platycaule, misidentified as S. micranthum. Later, I searched the site for more observations of this species and found a total of 7 observations.

I believe this species was overlooked because is hard to identify and don't attract much attention of naturalists at field. Also, the region of occurence still have very little botanic identifiers.

Posted on October 30, 2023 02:29 PM by regisrafael regisrafael | 1 observation | 3 comments | Leave a comment

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