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Journal archives for July 2016

July 27, 2016

Panaeolus in NZ

Panaeolus are brown mushrooms characterised by black (or dark brown) spores and the sides of the gills with a mottled appearance. The caps have a minutely sparkly appearance (hand-lens) as a consequence of spherical cap cells, unlike the filamentous hyphae found in the cap of many (dark spored) fungi. In this respect they are superficially similar to members of the psathyrellaceae, but phylogenetically Panaeolus is closer to the brown spored bolbitaceae. They are saprobes on soil and dung and all introduced except P. fimbriatus and perhaps P. nirimbii. The hallucinogenic P. cyanescens (=Copelandia cyanescens) is said to occur in New Zealand (in Taranaki dunes) but there is no confirmed material in the national collection and it is possible the reports are erroneous and refer to one of the indigenous Psilocybe species in the Psilocybe subaeruginosa/cyanescens complex on decaying wood, or perhaps Panaeolus antillarum on horse/donkey dung. The common name 'Blue meanies' is used for P. cyanescens elsewhere, but in New Zealand has been used for the secotioid and hallucinogenic Psilocybe weraroa. P. cinctulus is also hallucnogenic, and confirmed as present. P. subfirmus is also recorded but without accessible material or photograph. It may have been confused with P. acuminatus but it is confirmed from sub-antarctic islands. P. semiovatus is also recorded on horse/donkey dung but records may be misidentifications of P. antillarum (without a ring). A number of other species names have been used (P. sphinctrinus, P. campanulatus) but I believe it's possible the use of those names (in NZ) refer to environmental/developmental variants of other species. It seems the the presence/absence of veilar remnants on the cap edge is variable. The status of P. olivaceous is also questionable as sequence data do not confirm a unique interpretation of that name. Indeed the current GenBank sequence data imply much confusion in the application of names commonly applied to Panaeolus species. In general Panaeolus species could possibly be confused with other small, pale brown mushrooms, such as Conocybe, Agrocybe, Stropharia, Psathyrella , Psilocybe, and Deconica.

1

Growing on rotten wood

Panaeolus fimbriatus

1’

Growing on soil or dung

2

2

Fruitbody secotioid, long and thin

Panaeolopsis nirimbii

2’

Fruitbody with expanded cap and normal gills

3

3

Gills brown, spores distinctly verrucose, in lawns and parks

Panaeolus foenisecii

3’

Gills grey/black, spores smooth or minutely rugulose, on soil, dung or wood chips

4

4

Stem with appendiculate ring, stem 80-200 mm and cap 30-800 mm. If similar but without ring then P. antillarum or P. subfirmus

P. semiovatus

4’

Stem without ring, smaller stature

5

5

Spores minutely rugulose (requires oil immersion)

P. olivaceus

5’

Spores smooth

6

6

Gills with thick walled cystidia, frb blueing (see also P. cinctulus & Psilocybe)

P. cyanescens

6’

Gills without thick walled cystidia

7

7

Spores < 15um long on average. Cap perimeter without veilar remnants

8

7’

Spores > 16um long on average. Veilar remnants present or not.

9

8

Stem 1.5-3mm diam., cap remaining convex. Spore Q > 1.6.

P. acuminatus

8’

Stem 3-8mm. diam, cap becoming flattened (sometimes faint blueing of stem). Spore Q < 1.6.  

P. cinctulus

9

On dung. Cap not hygrophanous. Perimeter often with veil remnants.Spores < 17um.

P. papilionaceus

9’

In grassland (with cows/sheep), large (like P. semiovatus), cap hygrophanous. Spores often > 17um

P. subfirmus

Posted on July 27, 2016 21:45 by cooperj cooperj | 0 comments | Leave a comment

July 25, 2016

Hebeloma in NZ

A VERY preliminary key, based on NZ collections, Henry Becker's recent Hebeloma volume in Fungi Europaei, and a reasonable amount of sequencing of NZ material.

1

With indigenous beech or tea-tree

10

1’

With exotic trees

2

2

Sweet, caramel-like odour

H. sacchariolens

2’

Odour raphanoid or absent

3

3

Fruitbodies with cortina, sometimes fugacious at stem apex, remnants often around cap edge. Section Hebeloma

H. meosphaeum

3’

Fruitbodies without cortina

4

4

Spores strongly dextrinoid. Cheilocystidia lageniform/cylindrical. No tears on the gills. Section Velutipes

H. velutipes

4’

Spores dextrinoid or not. Cheilocystidia swollen at base and apex. Often with tears on the gills. Section Denudata

5

5

Spores strongly dextrinoid, strongly ornamented, with a loosening epispore. With willows & Poplars

H. rostratum

5' Spores not dextrinoid 6

6

Dominant colour white/cream. Cheilocystidia with significantly swollen abrupt apex  (apex diam. > 1.6 middle diam.)

7

6’

Pileus colour uniformly tan or two-tone with pale perimeter and yellow/tan centre. Cheilocystidia not significantly and abruptly swollen at apex.

8

7

Spores >= 6.5um wide and > 10.8 um long

H. crustiliniforme

7

Spores < 6.5um wide and <= 10.8um long. Upland?

H. aanenii

8

Cap colour uniformly buff/tan

H. hiemale

8’

Cap colour two-tone

9

9

Cap with pale perimeter and brown centre

H. cavipes

9’

Cap with pale perimeter and yellow centre

H. pseudofragilipes

10

Fruitbodies large at maturity, with distinct ring and pinkish/violaceous brown spores. With tea-tree but also recorded under beech. (Species similar to Cortinarius australiensis with mustard spores).

H. victoriense

10’

Fruitbodies without ring

11

11

Stipe enlarged at base, pleurocystidia present, cheilocystidia sparse, spores 8.2-10 x 4.5-6um, associated with animal carcasses

H. aminophilum

11’

Not associated with animal carcasses, stipe enlarged at base or not, pleurocystidia absent, cheilocystidia abundant.

12

12

With beech. Stipe cylindrical. Pileus brown. Spores 9.5-11.5 x 6-7um

H. mediorufum

12’

With tea-tree. Stipe enlarged at base. Pileus paler cream/brown. Spores 8-10 x 5.5-6um

H. lacteocoffeatum

Confirmed recorded host associations for exotic Hebeloma

H. sacchariolens – Populus, Quercus, Tilia, Leptospermum (planted)

H. mesophaeum – Salix, Nothofagus (planted)

H. velutipes – Pinus, Nothofagus (not planted)

H. crustiliniforme – Betula, Cedrus, Fagus

H. aanenii – Salix (possibly upland)

H. hiemale – Salix, Pinus

H. cavipes – Populus, Betula

H. rostratum - Salix

H. pseudofragilipes – Salix, Quercus, Tilia

H. ammophilum- has been recorded with Leptospermum, Nothofagus (Sagara unpublished) and one record under Pinus (Leonard). This latter record has been confirmed by sequence data.

Posted on July 25, 2016 22:10 by cooperj cooperj | 3 comments | Leave a comment

July 04, 2016

Hohenbuehelia in NZ

I've had a long-standing interest in our Pleurotoid fungi, of which Hohenbuehelia is one genus. They are mostly brown or grey and the larger species can look very much like Pleurotus but are easily distinguished microscopically by the presence of large thick walled cystidia on the gills (metuloids) usually encrusted with crystals. They also have smaller strangulate-looking cystidia which are associated with drops of mucilage toxic to nematodes (called gloeosphex cystidia). Greta Stevenson named most of our species back in the 1960's but the associated descriptions focused on macro-morphology and are of limited use. Some keys for the group elsewhere have used characters such as fruitbody shape (fan-shaped or tongue shaped) but these can be variable. I have revised the type collections, combined with more recent collections, many of them sequenced and compared with existing material from overseas. It turns out the most diagnostic characters are the spores size and shape, combined with the appearance of the dark-brown pilocystidia which occur (sometimes sparsely) in the gelatinised cap tissue. This work, and the associated sequencing, has thrown up some surprises.

The undescribed H. 'Ahurirri' is a centrally stipitate species. It's affiliation with Hohenbuehelia is obvious from the presence of both metuloid and gloeosphex cystidia. Stipitate forms are rare in the genus and H. 'Ahurriri' occurs basal to the Hohenbuehelia clade and is suggestive of an ancestral form.

Hohenbuehelia ligulata (long known as Panellus ligulatus) is an orange tongue shaped species without metuloids, but the presence of gloeosphex cystidia clearly indicated, even before it was sequenced, that it belonged in Hohenbuehelia. It may also be the same as the Australian species Dictyolus cinamoneus but recent collections of that require critical comparison with Cleland's type.

H. bonii was only recently described in association with Marram grass in the UK. It has historically been misidentified as another marram-associated species called H. culmicola. In NZ we have one collection from Dunedin dunes, which is clearly this species both morphologically and phylogenetically (PDD 87504). However, work remains to be done on this group. One Canadian sequence of Nematoctonus leiosporus is also identical to H. bonii (and others with that name are close). Nematoctonus is the name given to the anamorph nematode-trapping state of Hohenbuehelia. The relationship between N. leiosporus and H. bonii needs clarification, especially as we have another ‘species’ with identical sequences to H. bonii and the Canadian N. leiosporus which is yellowish (like H. luteola) and grows on wood, not Marram (PDD 95515) and for which I retain the name H. leiosporus (without any particular justification!).

H. cyphelliformis is a distinct small grey species usually on living shrubs like Sophora. It is rare in the northern hemisphere but common here.

H. brunnea is very common and Greta described and the same species under the name H. podocarpinea. The two names point to its morphological variability. Sequenced New Zealand collections are very close to H. grisea (recently inappropriately neotypified by a collection from Austria, when the original type comes from New York!). It is likely that H. grisea provides an earlier name, when the correct application of that name has been confirmed.

Stevenson also described a species called Tectella luteola (with a veil that turned out so be a parasitic fungus) that is identical (somewhat confusingly) to a species she named H. luteola in the same paper, and H. luteohinnulea, also in the same paper. The correct name is H. luteola, and, as the name suggest it is yellowish (and can look like H. leiospora).

H. tristis is insufficiently known at present. Egon Horak considered it to be a synonym of H. nothofaginea but further collections are required.

Finally, H. parsonsiae is part of the globally distributed H. petalodes complex and phylogenetic data suggests multiple species in this complex, perhaps even within NZ. H. parsonsiae is sufficiently distinct to be considered a separate species. H. parsonsiae, like H. petalodes can be found growing in soil with wood chips, as well as on rotten wood.

Key to NZ species of Hohenbuehelia (see NZFUNGI2 website for collections/images)

1 - Fruitbody centrally stipitate- H. sp. ‘Ahurriri’
1’- Fruitbody laterally attached, with or without a pseudostipe- 2

2 - Fruitbody ligulate, orange to cinnamon coloured, without metuloids- H. ligulatus
2’- Fruitbody brown, grey, yellow, tan, brown, with metuloids- 3

3 - Spores ellipsoid, Q less than 1.6. Frb usually with rhizoids- 4
3’- Spores cylindrical to allantoid, Q over 1.8. Frb usually without rhizoids- 7

4 - Spores greater than 8um long, pilocystidia wall less than 2um at thickest- 5
4’- Spores less than 7um long, pilocystidia wall over 3um at thickest, Cap yellow, tan, or dark brown.- 6

5 - Cap yellow, on wood- H. leiospora
5'- Cap brown, with marram grass- H. bonni

6 - Cap yellowish, often with olivaceous hues. Cap vertical section without dark brown band. Pilocystidia sinuate, pale.-H. luteola
6’- Cap chestnut brown, polished. Cap vertical section with dark band(s). Pilocystidia dark brown, setoid. [If cap with scale-like tufts see H. sp. PDD 87277 (JAC1087)]- H. parsonsiae

7 - Cap grey, gills brilliant white, spores allantoid, metuloids hardly projecting. Frb laterally attached, without pseudostipe.- H. cyphelliformis
7’- Cap grey to brown, gills cream to orange, spores cylindrical, metuloids distinctly projecting. Frb. Laterallay attached or with lateral pseudostipe.- 8

8 - Cap without pilocystidia (species known only from type)- H. tristis
8’- Cap with pilocystidia- 9

9 - Cap dark brown, usually with lateral pseudostipe, gills yellow/orange with age- H. nothofaginea
9’- Cap grey to tan, laterally attached, without pseudostipe. gills remaining pale- H. brunnea

Posted on July 04, 2016 00:15 by cooperj cooperj | 0 comments | Leave a comment

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