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Journal archives for April 2015

April 11, 2015

Paxillus

Paxillus is an ectomycorrhizal genus with introduced trees. Paxillus involutus was recently shown to be a species complex. See this record for more info ...
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1291556

So far in NZ we have confirmed P. cuprinus and P. ammoniavirescens and it is likely that we have P. obscurosporus (it is common in Australia). These are all commonly associated with introduced street/park trees. The real Paxillus involutus is not associated with trees in urban environments, even its home territory, and is unlikely to be present in New Zealand (or anywhere else Paxillus has been introduced with European trees). In general P. cuprinus appears to be associated with birch, alder and lime whereas P. ammoniavirescens favours oaks, poplars and conifers. Unfortunately P. obscurosporus is not so specific.

ITS Tree

Posted on April 11, 2015 06:44 by cooperj cooperj | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Notes on miscellaneous fungal groups

Occasionally I collect together my notes on various groups and post them on the Fungal Network of New Zealand (FUNNZ) website 'MycoBlog'. These might be useful for identification.

Grey gelatinous blobs on wood
http://www.funnz.org.nz/MycoBlog/Grey-gelatinous-blobs-and-the-Yin-Yang-fungus

But see also records for Exidia nucleata, Tremella, Pseudostypella, Eichleriella, Helicobasidium, Leucogloeae compressa and Atractiellales.

White/cream pleurotus-like or Clitocybe-like mushrooms on wood
http://www.funnz.org.nz/MycoBlog/Pleurocollybia-cremea-Clitocybe-albida

Clitocybe albida is now in the new genus Rhizocybe. The Neoclitocybe in the notes is really an unamed Ossicaulis sp which I thought might be Pleurcollybia cremea until I examined the type. P. cremea seems quite rare in comparison.

Small white crepidotus-like fungi on wood
http://www.funnz.org.nz/MycoBlog/Cheimonophyllum-sensu-Segedin

One of these I since named Clitopilus kamaka.

Small brownish crepidotus-like fungi on wood, i.e. Resupinatus
http://www.funnz.org.nz/MycoBlog/Resupinatus-in-New-Zealand

Bondarzewia - a big yellow basal rot fungus of trees
http://www.funnz.org.nz/MycoBlog/Bondarzewia-in-New-Zealand

Sometimes mistaken for Laetiporus sulphureus. The two NZ species are being published - when the paper gets through the review process. The species on angiosperms is B. kirkii, and thespeces with gymnosperms B. propria.

Rhizopogon - truffles in pine plantations
http://www.funnz.org.nz/node/93

Small brown mushrooms on wood that smell of garlic when crushed - Micromphale/Gymnopus
http://www.funnz.org.nz/node/101

Powdery mildews in New Zealand
http://www.funnz.org.nz/node/103

Mycena in NZ
http://www.funnz.org.nz/node/110

Russula in New Zealand
http://www.funnz.org.nz/node/112

Laccaria in New Zealand
http://www.funnz.org.nz/node/119

Posted on April 11, 2015 02:48 by cooperj cooperj | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Austropaxillus

Key features for separating NZ species of Austropaxillus...

A. nothofagi
context yellowish-white, unchanging. Taste bitter. Hyphae clamped. spores over 11um
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1383853

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1383865

A. squarrosus
context yellowish to yellowish white, turning red. Taste bitter. Hyphae unclamped. spores under 10um
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1353979

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1072153

A. macnabii
context white, unchanging. Taste bitter. Hyphae unclamped. spores under 10um
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1061963

Posted on April 11, 2015 07:46 by cooperj cooperj | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Lichenomphalia and look-alikes

Excluding Hygrocybe!

Lichenomphalia is a genus of lichenised mushrooms. All the historical names used for the NZ species are incorrect and we have a number of undescribed ones. Here's a preliminary key reflecting my understanding of the genus in NZ together with other inamyloid-spored omphalinoid fungi which could be mistaken for Lichenomphalia.

1

Associated with mosses or on soil and not associated with algal cells at base of stipe. Hyphae clamped.

2

1’

Always associated with green algal cells at base of stem. Hyphae unclamped.

4

2

Cap, gills and stem tan coloured, alpine

Omphalina rivulicola aff.

2’

Fruitbody with yellow or cream colours, not alpine, gills white, often in lawns

3

3

Fruitbody bright yellow cap/stem (if orange then consider Camaraophyllus delicatus, or Atheniella or Mycena acicula)

Rickenella fibula

3’

Fruitbody darker colours, stem apex often violaceous

Rickenella swartzii

4

Associated alga of obvious flattened squamules. Frb white, flat topped, with lilac tinges at the base. Open areas

Lichenomphalia 'Cobb valley'

4’

Associated alga smaller granules or an algal mat. Frb brown, cream, orange, yellow, pink

5

5

Frb with tan colours, cap convex, undulating, stem scurfy, especially towards base.

Lichenomphalia 'Otira Gorge'  

5’

Frb with other colours, or cap flat or depressed, and stem not scurfy

6

6

Frb cream to pink or yellow, in sphagnum bog, spore Q > 2

Lichenomphalia  'Lewis Pass'

6’

Frb yellow to orange, spore Q < 2

7

7

Frb bright lemon yellow, alga granular, spore Q 1.7-1.9

Lichenomphalia alpina sensu NZ

7’

Frb orange-yellow, alga a mat, spore Q < 1.7

Lichenomphalia chromacea.

 

 

Omphalina

Omphalina rivulicola aff.

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1441579

Possibly Omphalina pyxidata sensu NZ is a synonym and is a misapplication of the northern hemisphere O. pyxidata.

NZ material has a sequence match to O. antarctica. The species has been moved into .Arrhenia and has a drawing of the holotype looking somewhat different to this and the Genbank sequence a likely misidentification.

Omphalina wellingtonensis is described from New Zealand but is not a typical Omphalina in the modern sense. It looks superficially like Marasmius croceus/elegans but is more closely related to Mycena acicula (which is currently not correctly placed in Mycena)

Rickenella

Rickenella fibula

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/961400

Rickenella swartzii

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1365687

Lichenomphalia subgenus lichenomphalia

Lichenomphalia 'Cobb valley'

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1439272

Lichenomphalia subgenus protolichenomphalia

Lichenomphalia 'Otira Gorge'  

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1354682

This is  Lichenomphalia velutina sensu NZ, a misapplication. Some specimens of L. umbellifera ss NZ are also referable to this species. It is related to L. velutina/grisella of the northern hemisphere.

Lichenomphalia  'Lewis Pass'

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1439264

Lichenomphalia alpina ss NZ

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1439269

Lichenomphalia chromacea

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1439274

Cantharellula alpina Stevenson is a synonym. Horak (1971) A Contribution towards the Revision of the Agaricales (Fungi) from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, v9, pp403-462 considered this to be a Hygrophoropsis but re-examination of the type indicates it is a good species of Lichenomphalia.

L. umbellifera sensu NZ is a misapplication of this species or L. sp. 'Otira'.

Posted on April 11, 2015 07:05 by cooperj cooperj | 0 comments | Leave a comment

April 13, 2015

Xerocomus chrysenteron - cisalpinus

In 1968 Ross McNabb published a revision of our boletes in the New Zealand Journal of Botany, volume 6, pp137-176. In that revision he noted for the first time the occurrence of Xerocomus chrysenteron, the red-cracked bolete, as an ectomycorrhizal associate of a number of introduced broad-leaf trees. In the years since a number of similar looking fungi have also been reported such as Xerocomus pruinatus, X. badius and X. porosporus and I thought I had collected a number of them. Relatively recently in Europe molecular work has clarified species concepts in the group. As part of recent work towards a new revision of our boletes many of my collections in this group were sequenced. Very surprisingly nearly all the collections of different 'species' sequenced so far correspond to just a single recently described (recognised) species, X. cisalpinus. This was described from Italy and subsequently found in other European countries. The variability we have for this species seems to exceed that reported in its home territory and may explain some of the reports of other species in NZ (it certainly misled me). These could still turn out to be different species with very similar 'barcode' sequences, but what is certain is that they are not the same as the European X. chrysenteron , X. pruinatus, X. porosporus or X. badius and the appropriate name is X. cisalpinus.

It is quite hard to distinguish our variable X. cisalpinus from related species but the consistent character is the faint striations on the spores. It can only be seen using an oil immersion objective at 1000x, and even then when the spore is oriented at just the right angle (or using Differential Interference Optics).But if a lot of spores are viewed the striations are usually quite apparent. Sequencing has confirmed we do also have some other related species, specifically X. ripariellus and X. bubalinus. If the spores are truncated (only observable on mature spores) then X. porosporus is a possibility but there are no confirmed records so far.

The Large Subunit tree with all these species is attached to ...
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1390152

Variability in X. cisalpinus

JAC9271 with Tilia - https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1390126

JAC12731 with Tilia - https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1390141

JAC9272 with Betula - https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1390128

JAC10447 with Fagus - https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1351349

JAC12880 with Quercus - https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1390149

JAC9074 with Cedrus - https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1390130

JAC9484 with cedrus - https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1390136

JAC9075 with Cedrus - https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1390152

The striation in the spores can be seen in the image associated with ...
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1361053

Posted on April 13, 2015 04:37 by cooperj cooperj | 1 comment | Leave a comment

Bird's Nest Fungi

Distinguishing characters for the genera are ...

Crucibulum: receptacle cylindrical, with cap when you, eggs dull white, with short cord attached to eggs.

Cyathus: receptacle cone shaped, with cap when young, eggs dark brown/black, with long cord attached to eggs.

Nidula: cylindrical or cone shaped, with cap, eggs in gelatinous matrix, no cord attached to eggs.

Nidularia: receptacle round shaped, no cap, eggs light brown in gelatinous matrix, no cord attached to eggs.

Examples of the New Zealand species:

Some with incorrect identified I think.

Crucibulum laeve

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1005388

https://inaturalist.nz/observations/965403

Cyathus striatus
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/964546

Cyathus olla
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1365620

Cyathus stercoreus - a blackish species on dung. Not yet recorded on NW.
https://scd.landcareresearch.co.nz/Specimen/PDD%20100042

Cyathus novaezelandiae is probably same as C. striatus.
The reported differences are that C. nz is supposed to be ridged to only about halfway down the cup and in C. striatus the ridges go all the way. In C. nz the spores are reported to be 7-12um wide and in C. nz only 5-6um wide. The outer surface of C. nz black. I suspect all these differences are just developmental.

Cyathus colensoi and C. hookeri are probably just different stages of development of C. olla. C. hookeri was originally described from India. Sequenced collections labelled C. colensoi from India and C. hookeri from China have been shown to be the same as (in my opinion) C. olla from Canada, China and USA. (Zhao et al, Mycologia, v99, pp385-395, 2007).

Nidula candida
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1001251

Note the outer surface of cup is tan and not white. Receptacle usually 10-15mm high.

Nidula niveotomentosa
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1003207

Note the outer surface of cup is white and not tan. Receptacle usually 4-6mm high.

Nidularia deformis
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/965456

Posted on April 13, 2015 00:52 by cooperj cooperj | 0 comments | Leave a comment

April 12, 2015

Phlebopus

Historically known in NZ as Phaeogyroporus portentosus. The genus Pheogyroporus is now generally considered to be a synonym of Phlebopus. Watling & Gregory considered Phlebopus marginatus and Phlebopus (Phaeogyroporus) portentosus to be synonyms, in which case the correct name would be the oldest available legitimate name, which is P. portentosus . P. portentosus was described from Sri Lanka and P. marginatus from Western Australia. It is clear from available sequences there are multiple species involved, although the sequences may not cover all taxa in each area. The New Zealand species is different to the Asian species and therefore is probably not P. portentosus. EU718109 (REH8883) is from Australia (NSW - http://mycoportal.org/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=141910&clid=0) and may represent P. marginatus. The Australian species is not the same as P. portentosus from Asia or the New Zealand species. Africa also has a different species. New Zealand material is most closely related to the Australian P. marginatus but there is sufficient difference in Australia/New Zealand sequences to consider them different species (92% similarity), and the NZ taxon needs a new name. The morphology needs checking to see if there are any detectable and stable differences, and if the Australian & Asian sequences really do represent P. marginatus and the Sri Lankan P. portentosus.

See record ...
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/1387529

Posted on April 12, 2015 09:34 by cooperj cooperj | 0 comments | Leave a comment

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